A report on Japanese people and Ainu people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Shakōki-dogū (遮光器土偶) (1000–400 BC), "goggle-eyed type" figurine. Tokyo National Museum.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Genetic structure of present-day and ancient Eurasian and Ikawazu Jomon.
Ainu leader
Location of Imperial Japan
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
A Shinto festival in Miki, Hyogo
1843 illustration of Ainu
Hindu God Ganesha in a Buddhist Shrine in Japan
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Bisque doll of Momotarō,
a character from Japanese literature and folklore
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
The print Red Fuji from Katsushika Hokusai's series, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
The Japantown Peace Plaza during the Northern California Cherry Blossom Festival
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

Depending on the context, the term ethnic Japanese (日本民族) may be limited or not to mainland Japanese people, specifically the Yamato (as opposed to Ryukyuan and Ainu people).

- Japanese people

According to Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, the direct ancestors of the later Ainu people formed during the late Jōmon period from the combination of the local but diverse population of Hokkaido, long before the arrival of contemporary Japanese people.

- Ainu people

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Reconstruction of the Sannai-Maruyama Site in the Aomori Prefecture. The site shares cultural similarities with settlements of Northeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula, as well as with later Japanese culture, pointing to continuity between ancient and modern Japanese culture.

Jōmon period

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Time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. undefined 14,000–300 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

Time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. undefined 14,000–300 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

Reconstruction of the Sannai-Maruyama Site in the Aomori Prefecture. The site shares cultural similarities with settlements of Northeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula, as well as with later Japanese culture, pointing to continuity between ancient and modern Japanese culture.
Incipient Jōmon pottery (14th–8th millennium BCE) Tokyo National Museum, Japan
Jōmon pottery in the Yamanashi museum.
Spray style Jōmon pottery
The Japanese archipelago, during the last glaciation in about 20,000BC.
Azuki bean cultivation was common in southern Jōmon period Japan and also in southern China and Bhutan.
Jōmon clay mask, bearing similarities to clay masks found in the Amur region.
The Magatama is a famous jewelry from Jōmon period Japan, and was also found in the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia.
Reconstruction of a Jōmon period houses in the Aomori Prefecture.
Jōmon period clay figure from the Yamanashi Prefecture.
Reconstruction of Yayoi period houses in Kyushu.
Middle Jomon vessel
Forensic reconstruction from a local Niigata Jōmon sample.
Late Jomon clay statue, Kazahari I, Aomori Prefecture, 1500–1000 BCE.
Late Jomon clay head, Shidanai, Iwate Prefecture, 1500–1000 BCE.
A Middle Jomon jar. 2000 BCE.
Final Jomon jar, Kamegaoka style.
Clay statue, late Jomon period (1000–400 BCE), Tokyo National Museum
Reconstruction of a Yayoi period house in Kyushu.

The relationship of Jōmon people to the modern Japanese (Yamato people), Ryukyuans, and Ainu is not well clarified.

Yamato-no-Takeru, prince of the Yamato dynasty.

Yamato people

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Applied to the Imperial House of Japan or "Yamato Court" that existed in Japan in the 4th century; further, it was originally the name of the region where the Yamato people first settled in Yamato Province (modern-day Nara Prefecture).

Applied to the Imperial House of Japan or "Yamato Court" that existed in Japan in the 4th century; further, it was originally the name of the region where the Yamato people first settled in Yamato Province (modern-day Nara Prefecture).

Yamato-no-Takeru, prince of the Yamato dynasty.
Proposed population migration routes into Japan, based on haplogroups.
Migration routes into Japan during the Jōmon period.

The term came to be used around the late 19th century to distinguish the settlers of mainland Japan from minority ethnic groups inhabiting the peripheral areas of the then Japanese Empire, including the Ainu, Emishi, Ryukyuans, Nivkh, Oroks, as well as Austronesians, Chinese, Koreans, and Micronesian peoples who were incorporated into the Empire of Japan in the early 20th century.

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean scribes regularly wrote Wa or Yamato with one and the same Chinese character 倭 until the 8th century, when the Japanese found fault with it, replacing it with 和 "harmony, peace, balance".

Ryukyuan people

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East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan.

East Asian ethnic group native to the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan.

Haplogroup dispersal and migration routes into Japan.
The gusuku fortification are on the Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu UNESCO's list.
Map of Okinawa Island, showing the Sanzan period polities.
The castle town and Ryukyu Kingdom's capital Shuri Castle.
Five Ryukyuan men, Meiji period.
The kamekōbaka (Turtleback tomb) is the traditional Ryukyuan family tomb.

Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people.

The Ryukyuans differ strongly from the Ainu people, which, according to the authors, is a strong evidence for the heterogeneity of the Jōmon period population.

Hokkaido

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Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku, Sapporo
Palace reception near Hakodate in 1751. Ainu bringing gifts (cf. omusha)
The samurai and the Ainu, c. 1775
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period (December 10, 1829 – June 9, 1866)
Goryōkaku
The Ainu, Hokkaidō's indigenous people
Map of Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Map of Hokkaido as seen by municipalities
Satellite image of Hokkaidō in winter
Hokkaido in winter and summer
Sapporo, Hokkaidō's largest city.
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Farm Tomita in Nakafurano
Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station on the Hokkaido Shinkansen
Hollow Dogū, the only National Treasure on the island (Hakodate Jōmon Culture Center)
Sapporo Dome in Sapporo.
Geofeatures map of Hokkaido
Hokkaido seen from the International Space Station
Satellite image of Hokkaido
The Oyashio Current colliding with the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies. Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.
Overview of Kushiro Wetland
Lake Akan and Mount Meakan
View of Lake Mashū
Lake Shikotsu
Sōunkyō, a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area
Sapporo City
Asahikawa
Hakodate
Kushiro
Obihiro
Kitami
Iwamizawa
Abashiri
Wakkanai
Nemuro
Rumoi

Although there were Japanese settlers who ruled the southern tip of the island since the 16th century, Hokkaido was considered foreign territory that was inhabited by the indigenous people of the island, known as the Ainu people.

The Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese people, whereas the Emishi of northern Honshu were a distinctive group related to the Ainu.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

Japanese settlement on Sakhalin dates to at least the Edo period.

Most were of Japanese or Korean extraction, though there was also a small White Russian community as well as some Ainu indigenous tribes.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

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The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)
Diné boy, in the desert of Monument Valley, AZ, United States of America. The Three Sisters buttes are visible in the background.
Mapuche man, in Chile
Mayan women in Antigua Guatemala, Central America.
Language families of Indigenous peoples in North America: shown across present-day Canada, Greenland, the United States, and northern Mexico
The Kogi, descendants of the Tairona, are a culturally-intact, largely pre-Columbian society. The Tairona were one of the few indigenous American civilizations that were not fully conquered.
"The Maiden", one of the discovered Llullaillaco mummies. A Preserved Inca human sacrifice from around the year 1500.
Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact
Eight Crow Nation prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Drawing accompanying text in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585), showing Nahuas of conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Indigenous people at a Brazilian farm plantation in Minas Gerais ca. 1824
A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin
Ancient mesoamerican engraving of maize, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico
Main indigenous language families of South America (except Quechua, Aymaran, and Mapuche).
Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico
Textile art by Julia Pingushat (Inuk, Arviat, Nunavut, Canada), wool, embroidery floss, 1995
Chimu culture feather pectoral, feathers, reed, copper, silver, hide, cordage, ca. 1350–1450 CE
Indigenous man playing a panpipe, antara or siku
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and the First Men (collection of the Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver). The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies.
Some Inuit people on a traditional qamutiik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk, Greenland
Wixarika (Huichol) woman from Zacatecas
Tenejapa Carnival with Tzeltal people, Chiapas
Rarámuri marathon in Urique.
Choctaw artist from Oklahoma
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona
Indigenous Salvadoran Pipil women dancing in the traditional Procession of Palms, Panchimalco in El Salvador
Maya women from Guatemala
A Mayan woman
Owners of a roadside cafe near Cachi, Argentina
Indigenous woman in traditional dress, near Cochabamba, Bolivia
Indigenous man of Terena tribe from Brazil
Mapuche man and woman. The Mapuche make up about 85% of Indigenous population that live in Chile.
Guambía people relaxing in Colombia
Shaman of the Cofán people from the Ecuadorian Amazon Ecuador Amazonian forest
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Cuzco Region, Peru
A Warao family from Venezuela traveling in their canoe
Evo Morales (Aymara), former President of Bolivia
Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present
Wayúu artisan women, in the Colombian-Venezuelan Guajira.
Quechua women in festive dress, on the island of Taquile (Lake Titicaca).

Some subclades of C and D that have been found in the limited populations of Native Americans who have agreed to DNA testing bear some resemblance to the C and D sublades in Mongolian, Amur, Japanese, Korean, and Ainu populations.