A report on Kuril Islands and Ainu people

Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Caldera of the island Ushishir
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Stratovolcano Mt. Ruruy; view from Yuzhno-Kurilsk
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Kuril Ainu people next to their traditional dwelling.
Ainu leader
A map of Kuril Islands from Gisuke Sasamori's 1893 book Chishima Tanken
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
Historical extent of the Ainu
1843 illustration of Ainu
Shana Village in Etorofu (Shōwa period): a village hospital in the foreground, a factory in the left background with a fishery and a central radio tower (before 1945).
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Main village in Shikotan
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
Russian Orthodox church, Kunashir
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Kunashir
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
Atlasov
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
A view of the volcano Bogdan Khmelnitsky on Iturup Island
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Mendeleyeva in the southern part of Kunashir
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Yuzhno-Kurilsky District
Woman playing a tonkori
Ebeko volcano, Paramushir
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
White Rocks, Iturup
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people

The name Kuril originates from the autonym of the aboriginal Ainu, the islands' original inhabitants: kur, meaning 'man'.

- Kuril Islands
Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s

9 related topics with Alpha

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Sakhalin

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Largest island of Russia.

Largest island of Russia.

Historical extent of the Ainu people
De Vries (1643) mapped Sakhalin's eastern promontories without realising that he had visited an island (map from 1682).
French map from 1821 showing Sakhalin as part of Qing Empire
Mamiya Rinzō described Sakhalin as an island in his map
Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout the 18th century. This map from a 1773 atlas, based on the earlier work by d'Anville, who in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of Sakhalin – but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast (with Cape Patience, discovered by de Vries in 1643). Cape Aniva, also discovered by de Vries, and Cape Crillon (Black Cape) are, however, thought to form part of the mainland
La Perouse charted most of the southwestern coast of Sakhalin (or "Tchoka", as he heard natives call it) in 1787
1823 Japanese map of Karafuto and part of eastern Siberia (modern Khabarovsk Krai)
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890.
Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday. 1903
Sakhalin Island with Karafuto Prefecture highlighted
Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2009
Sakhalin and its surroundings.
Velikan Cape, Sakhalin
Zhdanko Mountain Ridge
Nivkh children in Sakhalin c. 1903
Western Gray whale near Sakhalin
Anaphalis margaritacea with peacock butterfly
A Japanese D51 steam locomotive outside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station
A passenger train in Nogliki
At the ceremony marking the opening of a liquefied natural gas production plant built as part of the Sakhalin-2 project

In 1875, Japan ceded its claims to Russia in exchange for the northern Kuril Islands.

Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks.

Hokkaido

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Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku, Sapporo
Palace reception near Hakodate in 1751. Ainu bringing gifts (cf. omusha)
The samurai and the Ainu, c. 1775
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period (December 10, 1829 – June 9, 1866)
Goryōkaku
The Ainu, Hokkaidō's indigenous people
Map of Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Map of Hokkaido as seen by municipalities
Satellite image of Hokkaidō in winter
Hokkaido in winter and summer
Sapporo, Hokkaidō's largest city.
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Farm Tomita in Nakafurano
Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station on the Hokkaido Shinkansen
Hollow Dogū, the only National Treasure on the island (Hakodate Jōmon Culture Center)
Sapporo Dome in Sapporo.
Geofeatures map of Hokkaido
Hokkaido seen from the International Space Station
Satellite image of Hokkaido
The Oyashio Current colliding with the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies. Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.
Overview of Kushiro Wetland
Lake Akan and Mount Meakan
View of Lake Mashū
Lake Shikotsu
Sōunkyō, a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area
Sapporo City
Asahikawa
Hakodate
Kushiro
Obihiro
Kitami
Iwamizawa
Abashiri
Wakkanai
Nemuro
Rumoi

Sakhalin lies about 43 kilometers (26 mi) to the north of Hokkaidō, and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, though the four most southerly are claimed by Japan.

Although there were Japanese settlers who ruled the southern tip of the island since the 16th century, Hokkaido was considered foreign territory that was inhabited by the indigenous people of the island, known as the Ainu people.

Sakhalin Oblast

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Aleksandrovskaya Prison in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky in 1903
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890
Shakhtyorsk narrow gauge railway, Central Processing Plant in Shakhtyorsk
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station Sakhalin Island, Russia

Sakhalin Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East.

Japanese or Ainu: 0.05%

Sea of Okhotsk full map

Sea of Okhotsk

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Marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean.

Marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean.

Sea of Okhotsk full map
Sea of Okhotsk seasons winter and summer
Most of the Sea of Okhotsk, with the exception of the Sakhalin Island, had been well mapped by 1792
Nagayevo Bay near Magadan, Russia
Shiretoko National Park on the Sea of Okhotsk coast of Hokkaido, Japan

It is located between Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, Japan's island of Hokkaido on the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.

The Okhotsk people and the later Ainu culture, a coastal fishing and hunter-gatherer people, were located around the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, as well as in northern Japan.

The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.

Kuril Islands dispute

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The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.
Disputed islands in question: Habomai Islands, Shikotan, Kunashiri (Kunashir) and Etorofu (Iturup)
Southern Kuril islands seen from the International Space Station
A 1939 map of the Pacific Rim. Dates shown indicate approximate time that the various powers gained control of their possessions
Japanese Iturup residents (then called Etorofu) and a Buddhist temple (before 1939)
Agreement regarding entry of the Soviet Union into the war against Japan
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev met local residents in Yuzhno-Kurilsk, 1 November 2010
Japanese people visiting their family graves on Tanfiliev Island (Suishō-jima), one of the Habomai Islands, 2008
A protest truck confronting the Japanese police near the Russian Embassy on August 9, 2015
A van covered with slogans calling for Japanese sovereignty over the Northern Territories (北方領土), 2006
The Ainu people were the original inhabitants of the Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands dispute, known as the Northern Territories dispute in Japan, is a territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation over the ownership of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.

Some individuals of the Ainu also claim the Kuril Islands, on the basis that their ethnic group inhabited the archipelago and Sakhalin prior to the arrival of Japanese and Russian settlers in the 19th century.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

In the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), Japan agreed to give up its claims on Sakhalin in exchange for undisputed ownership of the Kuril Islands.

Most were of Japanese or Korean extraction, though there was also a small White Russian community as well as some Ainu indigenous tribes.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993

Indigenous peoples

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Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)

Russian Far East

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Region in Northeast Asia.

Region in Northeast Asia.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)
On the Amur in Khabarovsk
Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka
Sikhote-Alin is the home to Amur tigers
Vladivostok in the early 1900s
Annual procession with the Albazin icon of Theotokos, Jewish Autonomous Region (2013)
Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1926 census)
Students in Vladivostok celebrating St. Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day (2009)
Graph depicting population change in the Russian Far East
Vladivostok in 2015
Transportation on the Lena River (2004)

The Soviet Union also occupied and annexed the Kuril Islands and southern Sakhalin.

Isolate: Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Ainus

Ainu in Russia

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Indigenous people of Siberia located in Sakhalin Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai and Kamchatka Krai.

Indigenous people of Siberia located in Sakhalin Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai and Kamchatka Krai.

Kuril Ainu people within their traditional dwelling, 1903
Sakhalin Ainu men, photographed by Bronisław Piłsudski
Rapuri, Kuril Ainu bird skin coat

The Russian Ainu people (Aine; айны), also called Kurile (курилы, kurily), Kamchatka's Kurile (камчатские курилы, kamchatskiye kurily / камчадальские айны, kamchadalskiye ayny) or Eine (эйны, eyny), can be subdivided into six groups.

The Ainu emphasize that they are the original inhabitants of the Kurile islands and that both the Japanese and Russians were invaders.