A report on Sakhalin and Ainu people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Historical extent of the Ainu people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
De Vries (1643) mapped Sakhalin's eastern promontories without realising that he had visited an island (map from 1682).
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
French map from 1821 showing Sakhalin as part of Qing Empire
Ainu leader
Mamiya Rinzō described Sakhalin as an island in his map
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout the 18th century. This map from a 1773 atlas, based on the earlier work by d'Anville, who in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of Sakhalin – but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast (with Cape Patience, discovered by de Vries in 1643). Cape Aniva, also discovered by de Vries, and Cape Crillon (Black Cape) are, however, thought to form part of the mainland
1843 illustration of Ainu
La Perouse charted most of the southwestern coast of Sakhalin (or "Tchoka", as he heard natives call it) in 1787
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
1823 Japanese map of Karafuto and part of eastern Siberia (modern Khabarovsk Krai)
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890.
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday. 1903
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Sakhalin Island with Karafuto Prefecture highlighted
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2009
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
Sakhalin and its surroundings.
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Velikan Cape, Sakhalin
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Zhdanko Mountain Ridge
Woman playing a tonkori
Nivkh children in Sakhalin c. 1903
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Western Gray whale near Sakhalin
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Anaphalis margaritacea with peacock butterfly
Bear hunting, 19th century
A Japanese D51 steam locomotive outside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station
Ainu people, c. 1840
A passenger train in Nogliki
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
At the ceremony marking the opening of a liquefied natural gas production plant built as part of the Sakhalin-2 project
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people

Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks.

- Sakhalin

13 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s

Kuril Islands

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The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (Japanese: "Kuril Islands" (クリル列島) or "Thousand Islands" (千島列島)) are a volcanic archipelago part of Sakhalin Oblast in the Russian Far East.

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (Japanese: "Kuril Islands" (クリル列島) or "Thousand Islands" (千島列島)) are a volcanic archipelago part of Sakhalin Oblast in the Russian Far East.

Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s
Caldera of the island Ushishir
Stratovolcano Mt. Ruruy; view from Yuzhno-Kurilsk
Kuril Ainu people next to their traditional dwelling.
A map of Kuril Islands from Gisuke Sasamori's 1893 book Chishima Tanken
Historical extent of the Ainu
Shana Village in Etorofu (Shōwa period): a village hospital in the foreground, a factory in the left background with a fishery and a central radio tower (before 1945).
Main village in Shikotan
Russian Orthodox church, Kunashir
Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Kunashir
Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir
Atlasov
A view of the volcano Bogdan Khmelnitsky on Iturup Island
Mendeleyeva in the southern part of Kunashir
Yuzhno-Kurilsky District
Ebeko volcano, Paramushir
White Rocks, Iturup

The name Kuril originates from the autonym of the aboriginal Ainu, the islands' original inhabitants: kur, meaning 'man'.

It may also be related to names for other islands that have traditionally been inhabited by the Ainu people, such as Kuyi or Kuye for Sakhalin and Kai for Hokkaidō.

Hokkaido

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Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku, Sapporo
Palace reception near Hakodate in 1751. Ainu bringing gifts (cf. omusha)
The samurai and the Ainu, c. 1775
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period (December 10, 1829 – June 9, 1866)
Goryōkaku
The Ainu, Hokkaidō's indigenous people
Map of Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Map of Hokkaido as seen by municipalities
Satellite image of Hokkaidō in winter
Hokkaido in winter and summer
Sapporo, Hokkaidō's largest city.
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Farm Tomita in Nakafurano
Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station on the Hokkaido Shinkansen
Hollow Dogū, the only National Treasure on the island (Hakodate Jōmon Culture Center)
Sapporo Dome in Sapporo.
Geofeatures map of Hokkaido
Hokkaido seen from the International Space Station
Satellite image of Hokkaido
The Oyashio Current colliding with the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies. Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.
Overview of Kushiro Wetland
Lake Akan and Mount Meakan
View of Lake Mashū
Lake Shikotsu
Sōunkyō, a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area
Sapporo City
Asahikawa
Hakodate
Kushiro
Obihiro
Kitami
Iwamizawa
Abashiri
Wakkanai
Nemuro
Rumoi

Sakhalin lies about 43 kilometers (26 mi) to the north of Hokkaidō, and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, though the four most southerly are claimed by Japan.

Although there were Japanese settlers who ruled the southern tip of the island since the 16th century, Hokkaido was considered foreign territory that was inhabited by the indigenous people of the island, known as the Ainu people.

Sakhalin Oblast

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Aleksandrovskaya Prison in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky in 1903
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890
Shakhtyorsk narrow gauge railway, Central Processing Plant in Shakhtyorsk
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station Sakhalin Island, Russia

Sakhalin Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East.

Japanese or Ainu: 0.05%

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).

Nivkh people

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The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
Settlement of Nivkhs in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Giliaki or Yupi (meaning "[people wearing clothes made of] fish-skin"; a Chinese appellation also used for the Nani people) on an early 18 c. French map depicting the Vries Strait and the Strait of Tartary. Note that Niuchi doesn't refer to Nivkh but rather for Jurchen,
A Nivkh village in the early-20th century
A bear festival by Nivkh around 1903
Nivkh men who wear skiy and kosk
Mos, a traditional Nivkh dish
1862 illustration of an Ainu man (left) and a Nivkh couple (right).
Mitochondrial DNA study of Siberian peoples. The Nivkh (labelled ) can be seen to not be related to the other people.

Sakhalin) "the people"), are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting the northern half of Sakhalin Island and the lower Amur River and coast on the adjacent Russian mainland and historically possibly parts of Manchuria.

Ming Chinese outposts in Sakhalin and the Amur river area received animal skin tribute from Ainu on Sakhalin, Uilta and Nivkh in the 15th century after the Tyr based Yongning Temple was set up along with the Nurkan (Nurgan) outposts by the Yongle emperor in 1409.

Sea of Okhotsk full map

Sea of Okhotsk

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Marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean.

Marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean.

Sea of Okhotsk full map
Sea of Okhotsk seasons winter and summer
Most of the Sea of Okhotsk, with the exception of the Sakhalin Island, had been well mapped by 1792
Nagayevo Bay near Magadan, Russia
Shiretoko National Park on the Sea of Okhotsk coast of Hokkaido, Japan

It is located between Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, Japan's island of Hokkaido on the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.

The Okhotsk people and the later Ainu culture, a coastal fishing and hunter-gatherer people, were located around the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, as well as in northern Japan.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Oroks

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Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Red fox fur mittens of the Orok people, 19th century.

According to the 2002 Russian census, there were 346 Oroks living in Northern Sakhalin by the Okhotsk Sea and Southern Sakhalin in the district by the city of Poronaysk.

A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu.

The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.

Kuril Islands dispute

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Territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation over the ownership of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.

Territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation over the ownership of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.

The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.
Disputed islands in question: Habomai Islands, Shikotan, Kunashiri (Kunashir) and Etorofu (Iturup)
Southern Kuril islands seen from the International Space Station
A 1939 map of the Pacific Rim. Dates shown indicate approximate time that the various powers gained control of their possessions
Japanese Iturup residents (then called Etorofu) and a Buddhist temple (before 1939)
Agreement regarding entry of the Soviet Union into the war against Japan
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev met local residents in Yuzhno-Kurilsk, 1 November 2010
Japanese people visiting their family graves on Tanfiliev Island (Suishō-jima), one of the Habomai Islands, 2008
A protest truck confronting the Japanese police near the Russian Embassy on August 9, 2015
A van covered with slogans calling for Japanese sovereignty over the Northern Territories (北方領土), 2006
The Ainu people were the original inhabitants of the Kuril Islands

The first Russo-Japanese agreement to deal with the status of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands was the 1855 Treaty of Shimoda, which first established official relations between the Russian Empire and Tokugawa Japan.

Some individuals of the Ainu also claim the Kuril Islands, on the basis that their ethnic group inhabited the archipelago and Sakhalin prior to the arrival of Japanese and Russian settlers in the 19th century.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

Karafuto Prefecture (樺太廳, Karafuto-chō; Префектура Карафуто), commonly known as South Sakhalin, was a prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Most were of Japanese or Korean extraction, though there was also a small White Russian community as well as some Ainu indigenous tribes.

Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Ulch people

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Indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic language known as Ulch.

Indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic language known as Ulch.

Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
An Ulchi man and woman
Interior of a Mangun House, drawing by Richard Maack ca. 1854-1860

At the end of the 19th century, sable was already rare on the Amur, so they went on long expeditions to Sakhalin, to the basins of the Amgun, Gorin River and Tumnin, on the coast of the Tatar Strait and on Hokkaido.

Their religion bears similarities to the religion of the Nivkh people and Ainu people.

Map of the "Land of Iesso" by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet (1683)

Ezo

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Japanese term historically used to refer to the lands to the north of the Japanese island of Honshu.

Japanese term historically used to refer to the lands to the north of the Japanese island of Honshu.

Map of the "Land of Iesso" by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet (1683)

It included the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, which changed its name from "Ezo" to "Hokkaidō" in 1869, and sometimes included Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.

The same two kanji used to write the word "Ezo", which literally mean "shrimp barbarians" in Chinese, can also be read in the Japanese language as "Emishi", the name given to the indigenous people of these lands, the descendants of whom are most likely related to the Ainu people.