A report on Ainu people and Sakhalin Oblast

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Aleksandrovskaya Prison in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky in 1903
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890
1843 illustration of Ainu
Shakhtyorsk narrow gauge railway, Central Processing Plant in Shakhtyorsk
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station Sakhalin Island, Russia
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

Japanese or Ainu: 0.05%

- Sakhalin Oblast

Ethnic Ainu living in Sakhalin Oblast and Khabarovsk Krai are not organized politically.

- Ainu people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

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Sakhalin

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Largest island of Russia.

Largest island of Russia.

Historical extent of the Ainu people
De Vries (1643) mapped Sakhalin's eastern promontories without realising that he had visited an island (map from 1682).
French map from 1821 showing Sakhalin as part of Qing Empire
Mamiya Rinzō described Sakhalin as an island in his map
Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout the 18th century. This map from a 1773 atlas, based on the earlier work by d'Anville, who in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of Sakhalin – but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast (with Cape Patience, discovered by de Vries in 1643). Cape Aniva, also discovered by de Vries, and Cape Crillon (Black Cape) are, however, thought to form part of the mainland
La Perouse charted most of the southwestern coast of Sakhalin (or "Tchoka", as he heard natives call it) in 1787
1823 Japanese map of Karafuto and part of eastern Siberia (modern Khabarovsk Krai)
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890.
Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday. 1903
Sakhalin Island with Karafuto Prefecture highlighted
Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2009
Sakhalin and its surroundings.
Velikan Cape, Sakhalin
Zhdanko Mountain Ridge
Nivkh children in Sakhalin c. 1903
Western Gray whale near Sakhalin
Anaphalis margaritacea with peacock butterfly
A Japanese D51 steam locomotive outside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station
A passenger train in Nogliki
At the ceremony marking the opening of a liquefied natural gas production plant built as part of the Sakhalin-2 project

It is north of the Japanese archipelago, and is administered as part of the Sakhalin Oblast.

Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks.

Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s

Kuril Islands

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Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s
Caldera of the island Ushishir
Stratovolcano Mt. Ruruy; view from Yuzhno-Kurilsk
Kuril Ainu people next to their traditional dwelling.
A map of Kuril Islands from Gisuke Sasamori's 1893 book Chishima Tanken
Historical extent of the Ainu
Shana Village in Etorofu (Shōwa period): a village hospital in the foreground, a factory in the left background with a fishery and a central radio tower (before 1945).
Main village in Shikotan
Russian Orthodox church, Kunashir
Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Kunashir
Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir
Atlasov
A view of the volcano Bogdan Khmelnitsky on Iturup Island
Mendeleyeva in the southern part of Kunashir
Yuzhno-Kurilsky District
Ebeko volcano, Paramushir
White Rocks, Iturup

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (Japanese: "Kuril Islands" (クリル列島) or "Thousand Islands" (千島列島)) are a volcanic archipelago part of Sakhalin Oblast in the Russian Far East.

The name Kuril originates from the autonym of the aboriginal Ainu, the islands' original inhabitants: kur, meaning 'man'.

Hokkaido

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Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region.

Former Hokkaidō Government Office in Chūō-ku, Sapporo
Palace reception near Hakodate in 1751. Ainu bringing gifts (cf. omusha)
The samurai and the Ainu, c. 1775
Matsumae Takahiro, a Matsumae lord of the late Edo period (December 10, 1829 – June 9, 1866)
Goryōkaku
The Ainu, Hokkaidō's indigenous people
Map of Hokkaido showing the subprefectures and the primary cities
Map of Hokkaido as seen by municipalities
Satellite image of Hokkaidō in winter
Hokkaido in winter and summer
Sapporo, Hokkaidō's largest city.
Large farm of Tokachi plain
Farm Tomita in Nakafurano
Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station on the Hokkaido Shinkansen
Hollow Dogū, the only National Treasure on the island (Hakodate Jōmon Culture Center)
Sapporo Dome in Sapporo.
Geofeatures map of Hokkaido
Hokkaido seen from the International Space Station
Satellite image of Hokkaido
The Oyashio Current colliding with the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Hokkaido. When two currents collide, they create eddies. Phytoplankton growing in the surface waters become concentrated along the boundaries of these eddies, tracing out the motions of the water.
Overview of Kushiro Wetland
Lake Akan and Mount Meakan
View of Lake Mashū
Lake Shikotsu
Sōunkyō, a gorge in the Daisetsu-zan Volcanic Area
Sapporo City
Asahikawa
Hakodate
Kushiro
Obihiro
Kitami
Iwamizawa
Abashiri
Wakkanai
Nemuro
Rumoi

Although there were Japanese settlers who ruled the southern tip of the island since the 16th century, Hokkaido was considered foreign territory that was inhabited by the indigenous people of the island, known as the Ainu people.

The island of Hokkaidō is located in the north of Japan, near Russia (Sakhalin Oblast).

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).

Nivkh people

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The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
Settlement of Nivkhs in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Giliaki or Yupi (meaning "[people wearing clothes made of] fish-skin"; a Chinese appellation also used for the Nani people) on an early 18 c. French map depicting the Vries Strait and the Strait of Tartary. Note that Niuchi doesn't refer to Nivkh but rather for Jurchen,
A Nivkh village in the early-20th century
A bear festival by Nivkh around 1903
Nivkh men who wear skiy and kosk
Mos, a traditional Nivkh dish
1862 illustration of an Ainu man (left) and a Nivkh couple (right).
Mitochondrial DNA study of Siberian peoples. The Nivkh (labelled ) can be seen to not be related to the other people.

Ming Chinese outposts in Sakhalin and the Amur river area received animal skin tribute from Ainu on Sakhalin, Uilta and Nivkh in the 15th century after the Tyr based Yongning Temple was set up along with the Nurkan (Nurgan) outposts by the Yongle emperor in 1409.

According to the abstract for a doctoral dissertation by Vladimir Nikolaevich Kharkov, a sample of 52 Nivkhs (Нивхи) from Sakhalin Oblast (Сахалинская область) contained the following Y-DNA haplogroups: 71% (37/52) C-M217(xC-M77/M86, C-M407), 7.7% (4/52) O-M324(xO-M134), 7.7% (4/52) Q-M242(xQ-M346), 5.8% (3/52) D-M174, 3.8% (2/52) O-M175(xO-P31, O-M122), 1.9% (1/52) O-P31, and 1.9% (1/52) N-M46/M178.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Oroks

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Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Red fox fur mittens of the Orok people, 19th century.

Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

Karafuto Prefecture was de facto replaced with Sakhalin Oblast, although it continued to exist de jure under Japanese law until it was formally abolished as a legal entity by Japan on 1 June 1949.

Most were of Japanese or Korean extraction, though there was also a small White Russian community as well as some Ainu indigenous tribes.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)

Russian Far East

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Region in Northeast Asia.

Region in Northeast Asia.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)
On the Amur in Khabarovsk
Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka
Sikhote-Alin is the home to Amur tigers
Vladivostok in the early 1900s
Annual procession with the Albazin icon of Theotokos, Jewish Autonomous Region (2013)
Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1926 census)
Students in Vladivostok celebrating St. Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day (2009)
Graph depicting population change in the Russian Far East
Vladivostok in 2015
Transportation on the Lena River (2004)

In 2000 Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, one of which, the Far Eastern Federal District, comprised Amur Oblast, the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast with the Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, and Sakhalin Oblast.

Isolate: Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Ainus

The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.

Kuril Islands dispute

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Territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation over the ownership of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.

Territorial dispute between Japan and the Russian Federation over the ownership of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.

The Kuril Islands with Russian names. Borders of Shimoda Treaty (1855) and Treaty of St. Petersburg (1875) shown in red. Since 1945 all islands northeast of Hokkaido have been administered by Russia.
Disputed islands in question: Habomai Islands, Shikotan, Kunashiri (Kunashir) and Etorofu (Iturup)
Southern Kuril islands seen from the International Space Station
A 1939 map of the Pacific Rim. Dates shown indicate approximate time that the various powers gained control of their possessions
Japanese Iturup residents (then called Etorofu) and a Buddhist temple (before 1939)
Agreement regarding entry of the Soviet Union into the war against Japan
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev met local residents in Yuzhno-Kurilsk, 1 November 2010
Japanese people visiting their family graves on Tanfiliev Island (Suishō-jima), one of the Habomai Islands, 2008
A protest truck confronting the Japanese police near the Russian Embassy on August 9, 2015
A van covered with slogans calling for Japanese sovereignty over the Northern Territories (北方領土), 2006
The Ainu people were the original inhabitants of the Kuril Islands

The disputed islands are under Russian administration as the South Kuril District of the Sakhalin Oblast (Сахалинская область, Sakhalinskaya oblast).

Some individuals of the Ainu also claim the Kuril Islands, on the basis that their ethnic group inhabited the archipelago and Sakhalin prior to the arrival of Japanese and Russian settlers in the 19th century.