A report on Ainu people and Ulch people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
An Ulchi man and woman
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Interior of a Mangun House, drawing by Richard Maack ca. 1854-1860
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

Evidence for Ainu speakers in the Amur region is found through Ainu loanwords in the Uilta and Ulch people.

- Ainu people

Their religion bears similarities to the religion of the Nivkh people and Ainu people.

- Ulch people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).

Nivkh people

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The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

The Nivkh, or Gilyak (also Nivkhs or Nivkhi, or Gilyaks; ethnonym: Нивхгу, Nʼivxgu (Amur) or Ниғвңгун, Nʼiɣvŋgun (E.

Settlements with Nivkh populations according to the Russian Census of 2002 (excluding Khabarovsk, Poronaysk and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
Settlement of Nivkhs in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Giliaki or Yupi (meaning "[people wearing clothes made of] fish-skin"; a Chinese appellation also used for the Nani people) on an early 18 c. French map depicting the Vries Strait and the Strait of Tartary. Note that Niuchi doesn't refer to Nivkh but rather for Jurchen,
A Nivkh village in the early-20th century
A bear festival by Nivkh around 1903
Nivkh men who wear skiy and kosk
Mos, a traditional Nivkh dish
1862 illustration of an Ainu man (left) and a Nivkh couple (right).
Mitochondrial DNA study of Siberian peoples. The Nivkh (labelled ) can be seen to not be related to the other people.

Ming Chinese outposts in Sakhalin and the Amur river area received animal skin tribute from Ainu on Sakhalin, Uilta and Nivkh in the 15th century after the Tyr based Yongning Temple was set up along with the Nurkan (Nurgan) outposts by the Yongle emperor in 1409.

Due to Ming rule in Manchuria, Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", Chinese motifs like the dragon, spirals, scrolls, and material goods like agriculture, husbandry, heating, iron cooking pots, silk, and cotton spread among the Amur natives like the Udeghes, Ulchis, and Nanais.

Sakhalin

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Largest island of Russia.

Largest island of Russia.

Historical extent of the Ainu people
De Vries (1643) mapped Sakhalin's eastern promontories without realising that he had visited an island (map from 1682).
French map from 1821 showing Sakhalin as part of Qing Empire
Mamiya Rinzō described Sakhalin as an island in his map
Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout the 18th century. This map from a 1773 atlas, based on the earlier work by d'Anville, who in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of Sakhalin – but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast (with Cape Patience, discovered by de Vries in 1643). Cape Aniva, also discovered by de Vries, and Cape Crillon (Black Cape) are, however, thought to form part of the mainland
La Perouse charted most of the southwestern coast of Sakhalin (or "Tchoka", as he heard natives call it) in 1787
1823 Japanese map of Karafuto and part of eastern Siberia (modern Khabarovsk Krai)
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Russia. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890.
Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday. 1903
Sakhalin Island with Karafuto Prefecture highlighted
Central part of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2009
Sakhalin and its surroundings.
Velikan Cape, Sakhalin
Zhdanko Mountain Ridge
Nivkh children in Sakhalin c. 1903
Western Gray whale near Sakhalin
Anaphalis margaritacea with peacock butterfly
A Japanese D51 steam locomotive outside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station
A passenger train in Nogliki
At the ceremony marking the opening of a liquefied natural gas production plant built as part of the Sakhalin-2 project

To obtain Chinese silk, the Ainu fell into debt, owing much fur to the Santan (Ulch people), who lived near the Qing office.

Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Oroks

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Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Red fox fur mittens of the Orok people, 19th century.

Orok oral tradition indicates that the Oroks share history with the Ulch people, and that they migrated to Sakhalin from the area of the Amgun River in mainland Russia.

A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu.

Haplogroup C-M217

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Now found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples, indigenous Siberians, and some Native peoples of North America.

Now found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples, indigenous Siberians, and some Native peoples of North America.

In particular, males belonging to peoples such as the Buryats, Evens, Evenks, Itelmens, Kalmyks, Kazakhs, Koryaks, Mongolians, Negidals, Nivkhs, Udege, and Ulchi have high levels of M217.

members =Oroqen 61% -91%, Evenks 12.9% - 71%, Ulchi 69%, Nivkhs 38% -71%, Kazakhs 50.85% (5.3% Ysty - 80.3% Baiuly ), Buryats 7% -84%, Evens 5% -74%, Mongolians 54%, Tanana 42%, Koryaks 33% -48%, Hazaras 35% –40%, Daur 31%, Yukaghir 31%, Manchu 22% (9.3% Bijie - 44.0% Heilongjiang ), Hezhe 29.6%, Sibe 29.3%, Tujia 23% (18% Jishou, 21% Guizhou, 23% Hubei, 27% Hunan ), North Korean 23% (19% -27% ), Altai 22% -24%, Dong 21% (6% Guangxi, 20% Hunan, 22% Hunan, 30% Guizhou ), Kyrgyz 20% -26.6%, Uzbeks 20% (Uzbekistan ) - 54% (Takhar ), Hani 18% (12% Mường Tè, 18%, 22% Yunnan ), South Korean 16% (11.6% -21% ), Cheyenne 16%, Apache 15%, Northern Han 14.7% (4.3%-29.6%), Tuvans 11% – 15%, Ainu 12.5% -25%, Hui 11%, Sioux 11%, Nogais 14%, Crimean Tatars 9%, Uyghurs 8.27% (0% Ürümqi, 0% Turpan area, 2.6% Keriya, 3.1% Lopnur, 6.0%, 6.0% Ürümqi area, 6.3% Bortala area, 7.0% Yining area, 7.7% Yili, 8.37% Hetian area, 11.8% Horiqol Township, 16.08% Turpan area ), Vietnamese 7.6% (4.3%-12.5% ), Tajiks (Afghanistan) 7.6% (3.6% -9.2% ), Southern Han 7.1% (0%-23.5%), Tabassarans 7% }, Abazinians 7%, Japanese 5.9% (0% Tokyo, Okinawa, Aomori, - 7.8% Fukuoka ), Adygei 2.9%, Kabardians 2.4%, Pasthun 2.04% | descendants = C-M93 (C2a); C-CTS117 (C2b); C-P53.1 (C2c); C-P62 (C2d); C-F2613/Z1338 (C2e)}}

Haplogroup Y (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Haplogroup Y has been found with high frequency in many indigenous populations who live around the Sea of Okhotsk, including approximately 66% of Nivkhs, approximately 43% of Ulchs, approximately 40% of Nanais, approximately 21% of Negidals, and approximately 20% of Ainus.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)

Russian Far East

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Region in Northeast Asia.

Region in Northeast Asia.

Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)
On the Amur in Khabarovsk
Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka
Sikhote-Alin is the home to Amur tigers
Vladivostok in the early 1900s
Annual procession with the Albazin icon of Theotokos, Jewish Autonomous Region (2013)
Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1926 census)
Students in Vladivostok celebrating St. Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day (2009)
Graph depicting population change in the Russian Far East
Vladivostok in 2015
Transportation on the Lena River (2004)

Tungusic: Evenks, Evens, Nanais, Orochs, Ul'ch, Udegey, Orok, Manchus

Isolate: Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Ainus