A report on Ainu people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

82 related topics with Alpha

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Migration route of haplogroup D

Haplogroup D-M55

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Y-chromosome haplogroup.

Y-chromosome haplogroup.

Migration route of haplogroup D
Migration route of Y-DNA haplogroups in East Asia

It has been found in fourteen of a sample of sixteen or 87.5% of a sample of Ainu males in one study published in 2004 and in three of a sample of four or 75% of a sample of Ainu males in another study published in 2005 in which some individuals from the 2004 study may have been retested.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Oroks

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Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia.

Settlement of the Uilta (Oroks) in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Red fox fur mittens of the Orok people, 19th century.

A penal colony was established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906, bringing large numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer on Oroks and the island's other indigenous people, the Nivkhs and Ainu.

Haplogroup Y (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Haplogroup Y has been found with high frequency in many indigenous populations who live around the Sea of Okhotsk, including approximately 66% of Nivkhs, approximately 43% of Ulchs, approximately 40% of Nanais, approximately 21% of Negidals, and approximately 20% of Ainus.

Sakhalin Oblast

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Federal subject of Russia comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East.

Federal subject of Russia comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East.

Aleksandrovskaya Prison in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky in 1903
Anton Chekhov museum in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky. It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during 1890
Shakhtyorsk narrow gauge railway, Central Processing Plant in Shakhtyorsk
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station Sakhalin Island, Russia

Japanese or Ainu: 0.05%

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993

Indigenous peoples

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Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin.

Karafuto Prefecture

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Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
Map of Sakhalin with parallels showing the division at the 50th parallel north with the Karafuto Prefecture highlighted in red
Green: Karafuto Prefecture within Japan in 1942
Light green: Other constituents of the Empire of Japan
The Karafuto Prefectural Office in Toyohara
A Japanese soldier at the border between the Karafuto Prefecture and Soviet Sakhalin
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive stands outside the present day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station, Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. They were used by the Soviet Railways until 1979.
Karafuto Prefecture with 4 subprefectures, namely Toyohara, Maoka, Esutoru and Shikuka . Toyohara City was also a part of Toyohara Subprefecture.

Most were of Japanese or Korean extraction, though there was also a small White Russian community as well as some Ainu indigenous tribes.

Haplogroup G (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Haplogroup G is one of the most common mtDNA haplogroups among modern Ainu, Japanese, Mongol, and Tibetan people (as well as among people of the prehistoric Jōmon culture in Hokkaidō).

Map of the "Land of Iesso" by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet (1683)

Ezo

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Japanese term historically used to refer to the lands to the north of the Japanese island of Honshu.

Japanese term historically used to refer to the lands to the north of the Japanese island of Honshu.

Map of the "Land of Iesso" by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet (1683)

The same two kanji used to write the word "Ezo", which literally mean "shrimp barbarians" in Chinese, can also be read in the Japanese language as "Emishi", the name given to the indigenous people of these lands, the descendants of whom are most likely related to the Ainu people.

Reconstruction of the Sannai-Maruyama Site in the Aomori Prefecture. The site shares cultural similarities with settlements of Northeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula, as well as with later Japanese culture, pointing to continuity between ancient and modern Japanese culture.

Jōmon period

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Time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. undefined 14,000–300 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

Time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. undefined 14,000–300 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common Jōmon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

Reconstruction of the Sannai-Maruyama Site in the Aomori Prefecture. The site shares cultural similarities with settlements of Northeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula, as well as with later Japanese culture, pointing to continuity between ancient and modern Japanese culture.
Incipient Jōmon pottery (14th–8th millennium BCE) Tokyo National Museum, Japan
Jōmon pottery in the Yamanashi museum.
Spray style Jōmon pottery
The Japanese archipelago, during the last glaciation in about 20,000BC.
Azuki bean cultivation was common in southern Jōmon period Japan and also in southern China and Bhutan.
Jōmon clay mask, bearing similarities to clay masks found in the Amur region.
The Magatama is a famous jewelry from Jōmon period Japan, and was also found in the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia.
Reconstruction of a Jōmon period houses in the Aomori Prefecture.
Jōmon period clay figure from the Yamanashi Prefecture.
Reconstruction of Yayoi period houses in Kyushu.
Middle Jomon vessel
Forensic reconstruction from a local Niigata Jōmon sample.
Late Jomon clay statue, Kazahari I, Aomori Prefecture, 1500–1000 BCE.
Late Jomon clay head, Shidanai, Iwate Prefecture, 1500–1000 BCE.
A Middle Jomon jar. 2000 BCE.
Final Jomon jar, Kamegaoka style.
Clay statue, late Jomon period (1000–400 BCE), Tokyo National Museum
Reconstruction of a Yayoi period house in Kyushu.

The relationship of Jōmon people to the modern Japanese (Yamato people), Ryukyuans, and Ainu is not well clarified.

Haplogroup C-M217

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Now found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples, indigenous Siberians, and some Native peoples of North America.

Now found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples, indigenous Siberians, and some Native peoples of North America.

members =Oroqen 61% -91%, Evenks 12.9% - 71%, Ulchi 69%, Nivkhs 38% -71%, Kazakhs 50.85% (5.3% Ysty - 80.3% Baiuly ), Buryats 7% -84%, Evens 5% -74%, Mongolians 54%, Tanana 42%, Koryaks 33% -48%, Hazaras 35% –40%, Daur 31%, Yukaghir 31%, Manchu 22% (9.3% Bijie - 44.0% Heilongjiang ), Hezhe 29.6%, Sibe 29.3%, Tujia 23% (18% Jishou, 21% Guizhou, 23% Hubei, 27% Hunan ), North Korean 23% (19% -27% ), Altai 22% -24%, Dong 21% (6% Guangxi, 20% Hunan, 22% Hunan, 30% Guizhou ), Kyrgyz 20% -26.6%, Uzbeks 20% (Uzbekistan ) - 54% (Takhar ), Hani 18% (12% Mường Tè, 18%, 22% Yunnan ), South Korean 16% (11.6% -21% ), Cheyenne 16%, Apache 15%, Northern Han 14.7% (4.3%-29.6%), Tuvans 11% – 15%, Ainu 12.5% -25%, Hui 11%, Sioux 11%, Nogais 14%, Crimean Tatars 9%, Uyghurs 8.27% (0% Ürümqi, 0% Turpan area, 2.6% Keriya, 3.1% Lopnur, 6.0%, 6.0% Ürümqi area, 6.3% Bortala area, 7.0% Yining area, 7.7% Yili, 8.37% Hetian area, 11.8% Horiqol Township, 16.08% Turpan area ), Vietnamese 7.6% (4.3%-12.5% ), Tajiks (Afghanistan) 7.6% (3.6% -9.2% ), Southern Han 7.1% (0%-23.5%), Tabassarans 7% }, Abazinians 7%, Japanese 5.9% (0% Tokyo, Okinawa, Aomori, - 7.8% Fukuoka ), Adygei 2.9%, Kabardians 2.4%, Pasthun 2.04% | descendants = C-M93 (C2a); C-CTS117 (C2b); C-P53.1 (C2c); C-P62 (C2d); C-F2613/Z1338 (C2e)}}