A report on Ainu people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

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Matagi with a killed bear, in 1966 at Kamikoani, Akita

Matagi

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Known for the Akita dogs.

Known for the Akita dogs.

Matagi with a killed bear, in 1966 at Kamikoani, Akita

Documented as a specialised group from the medieval period onwards, the Matagi continue to hunt deer and bear in the present day, and their culture has much in common with the bear worship of the Ainu people.

Reconstruction of a traditional Ainu dwelling (cise, pronounced "chee-seh"), outside of the Nibutani Ainu Culture Museum

Nibutani

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District in the town of Biratori in Hokkaidō, Japan.

District in the town of Biratori in Hokkaidō, Japan.

Reconstruction of a traditional Ainu dwelling (cise, pronounced "chee-seh"), outside of the Nibutani Ainu Culture Museum

A particularly large proportion of the population of the district is of the indigenous Ainu ethnicity.

Shigeru Kayano

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Shigeru Kayano was one of the last native speakers of the Ainu language and a leading figure in the Ainu ethnic movement in Japan.

Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census

Ulch people

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Indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic language known as Ulch.

Indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic language known as Ulch.

Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
An Ulchi man and woman
Interior of a Mangun House, drawing by Richard Maack ca. 1854-1860

Their religion bears similarities to the religion of the Nivkh people and Ainu people.

Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century

Chukchi people

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Indigenous people inhabiting now only the Chukchi Peninsula, the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

Indigenous people inhabiting now only the Chukchi Peninsula, the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century
Chukchi family and their Siberian Husky, early 20th century
Resettlement of the Chukchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Chukchi man
Laminar armor from hardened leather with pauldrons reinforced by wood, worn by Chukchi and Siberian Yupik people
The approximate distribution of Chukchi clans at the end of the 19th century
Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
Newlyweds Meet the Sun. Painting of Chukchi by Nikolai Getman

According to recent genomic research, the Chukchi are the closest Asiatic relatives of the indigenous peoples of the Americas as well as of the Ainu people.

East Asian people

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East Asian people (East Asians) are the people from East Asia, which consists of China, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea.

East Asian people (East Asians) are the people from East Asia, which consists of China, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea.

Other ethnic groups of East Asia include: the Ainu, Bai, Hui, Manchus, Mongols and other Mongolic peoples, Ryukyuan, Tibetans, Uyghurs, Yakuts and Zhuang.

Administrative divisions of Ming dynasty in 1409; Nurgan Regional Military Commission is in the northeast.

Nurgan Regional Military Commission

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Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at Nurgan city .

Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at Nurgan city .

Administrative divisions of Ming dynasty in 1409; Nurgan Regional Military Commission is in the northeast.
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Ming Chinese outposts in Sakhalin and the Amur river area received animal skin tribute from Ainu on Sakhalin, Uilta and Nivkh in the 15th century after the Tyr based Yongning Temple was set up along with the Nurkan (Nurgan) outposts by the Yongle emperor in 1409.

Suggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups M and N, Metspalu et al. 2004. A major population split near the Persian Gulf would explain the ubiquity of Haplogroup N and the absence of Haplogroup M in West Eurasia

Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA clade.

Human mitochondrial DNA clade.

Suggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups M and N, Metspalu et al. 2004. A major population split near the Persian Gulf would explain the ubiquity of Haplogroup N and the absence of Haplogroup M in West Eurasia
Dispersal route of Haplogroup N and its subgroups

Haplogroup Y – found especially among Nivkhs, Ulchs, Nanais, Negidals, Ainus, and the population of Nias Island, with a moderate frequency among other Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Mongols, Koryaks, Itelmens, Chinese, Japanese, Tajiks, Island Southeast Asians (including Taiwanese aborigines), and some Turkic peoples [TMRCA 24,576.4 ± 7,083.2 ybp; CI=95% ]

Satsumon culture

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The Satsumon culture (擦文文化) is a post-Jōmon, partially agricultural, archeological culture of northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido (700–1200 CE) that has been identified as the Emishi, as a Japanese-Emishi mixed culture, as the incipient modern Ainu, or with all three synonymously.

An Itelmen dance group, 2013

Itelmens

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Indigenous ethnic group of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.

Indigenous ethnic group of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.

An Itelmen dance group, 2013
An Itelmen dance group, 2013
Resettlement of Itelmens in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Itelmen and their winter dwelling, 1774
Winter dwelling and summer dwellings
An Itelmen (1862)

Native peoples of Kamchatka (Itelmen, Ainu, Koryaks and Chuvans), collectively referred to as Kamchadals, had a substantial hunter-gatherer and fishing society with up to fifty thousand natives inhabiting the peninsula before they were decimated by the Cossack conquest in the 18th century.