A report on Ainu people

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

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Aconitum

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Genus of over 250 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Ranunculaceae.

Genus of over 250 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Ranunculaceae.

Northern blue monkshood (A. noveboracense)
Dissected flower of Aconitum vulparia, showing the nectaries
Aconitum delphinifolium growing in its natural habitat. The plant thrives in wet soil with good drainage, amongst fireweed, false hellebore, yarrow, alpine rice, alpine foxtail, nootka lupine, alpine bistort, devil's club, and cow parsnip in the rocky, tundra-like, mountainous terrain of Turnagain Pass, Alaska.
Monkshood, Aconitum napellus
Plant as used in Chinese-style herbology (in Japanese) (crude medicine)
Subgenera of Aconitum and related taxa
Aconitum napellus
Trailing white monkshood (A. reclinatum)
Southern blue monkshood (A. uncinatum)
Wild Alaskan monkshood (A. delphinifolium) is a flowering species that belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. The picture was taken in Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

The Minaro in Ladakh use A. napellus on their arrows to hunt ibex, while the Ainu in Japan used a species of Aconitum to hunt bear as did the Matagi hunters of the same region before their adoption of firearms.

Key art depicting (left to right) Jin, Mugen, and Fuu

Samurai Champloo

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2004 Japanese historical adventure anime television series.

2004 Japanese historical adventure anime television series.

Key art depicting (left to right) Jin, Mugen, and Fuu
Series director Shinichirō Watanabe at the 2009 Japan Expo

A conscious inclusion was emphasising cultural acceptance and tolerance of minorities including the indigenous Ainu people, foreigners, LGBT people, and Christians; the historical Edo period was a time when Japan was highly structured, conformist and isolationist.

Ainu flag

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An Ainu flag was designed by Bikki Sunazawa, a Japanese sculptor of Ainu ancestry, in 1973.

Film poster

Ainu Mosir

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2020 Japanese drama film directed by Takeshi Fukunaga.

2020 Japanese drama film directed by Takeshi Fukunaga.

Film poster

It features a story about a young Ainu boy, and deals with issues around the conflict between his personal thoughts, modern Japan, and the way of his traditional Ainu heritage.

Flag of the Kariyushi Club, a political party that seeks the independence of the Ryukyu Islands

Ryukyu independence movement

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Political movement advocating for the independence of the Ryukyu Islands (commonly referred to as Okinawa after the largest island) from Japan.

Political movement advocating for the independence of the Ryukyu Islands (commonly referred to as Okinawa after the largest island) from Japan.

Flag of the Kariyushi Club, a political party that seeks the independence of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Kingdom before Japan's annexation
Map of the Ryukyuan languages.
A flag created by USCAR to represent Ryukyu
Map showing the territory covered by military bases of the United States in Okinawa
Headquarters of the Kariyushi Club

During the Meiji period there was a significant reimagining of the histories of Ryukyu and of Ezo, which was annexed at the same time, and an insistence that the non-Japonic Ainu of Hokkaidō and the Japonic Ryukyuan people were Japanese, both racially/ethnically and linguistically/culturally, going back many centuries, despite the evidence they were a significantly different group of people.

Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.

Nation state

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Political unit where the state and nation are congruent.

Political unit where the state and nation are congruent.

Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.
The Revolutions of 1848 were democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states.
Dissolution of the multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire (1918)
Ethnolinguistic map of mainland China and Taiwan
School map of Spain from 1850. It can be seen the State divided into four parts:- The "fully constitutional Spain", that includes Castilia, but also Galician-speacking territories. - The "assimilated Spain": territories from the Crown of Aragon,larguely Catalan-speaking territory- the "Foral Spain", which includes Basque-speaking territories- the "Colonial Spain", with last colonial territories.
The Greater German Reich under Nazi Germany in 1943

Japan: Japan is also traditionally seen as an example of a nation state and also the largest of the nation states, with population in excess of 120 million. Japan has a small number of minorities such as Ryūkyū peoples, Koreans and Chinese, and on the northern island of Hokkaidō, the indigenous Ainu minority. However, they are either numerically insignificant (Ainu), their difference is not as pronounced (though Ryukyuan culture is closely related to Japanese culture, it is nonetheless distinctive in that it historically received much more influence from China and has separate political and nonpolitical and religious traditions) or well assimilated (Zainichi population is collapsing due to assimilation/naturalisation).

Ussuri brown bear

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Subspecies of the brown bear or a population of the Eurasian brown bear (U. a. arctos).

Subspecies of the brown bear or a population of the Eurasian brown bear (U. a. arctos).

Ussuri Brown Bear in Hokkaido
Taxidermy exhibit portraying a brown bear fighting a Siberian tiger, Vladivostok Museum
Ussuri brown bear
Skull
Historic ranges (in dark red) adjacent to Japanese archipelago
A bear walks by the surf on Shiretoko Peninsula
Ussuri brown bear in the Iomante ceremony

The Ainu people worship the Ussuri brown bear, eating its flesh and drinking its blood as part of a religious festival known as Iomante.

Elm

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Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.

Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.

Golden elm tree with Dutch elm disease
The elm leaf beetle
Row of Princeton elm trees at Scripps College in Claremont, California, moderately resistant to Dutch elm disease
The ball-headed graft narvan elm, Ulmus minor 'Umbraculifera', cultivated in Persia and widely planted in central Asia.
Lafayette Street in Salem, Massachusetts: an example of the 'high-tunnelled effects' of Ulmus americana avenues once common in New England (colorized postcard, 1910)
Camperdown elm (Ulmus 'Camperdown'), cultivated in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York
An avenue of elm trees in Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne
American elm trees along The Mall and Literary Walk in New York City's Central Park (2013)
Rows of American elm trees line a path south of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. (November 11, 2006)
Elm wood
Elm in boat-building: John Constable, Boat-building near Flatford Mill, 1815 (landscape with hybrid elms Ulmus × hollandica )
English longbow of elm
Internal mill-wheel of elm, De Hoop mill, Oldebroek, Netherlands
Chinese Elm Ulmus parvifolia bonsai
Achilles and Scamander
Dryad
The Sibyl and Aeneas
Under the elm, Brighton, 2006
A rooted cutting of European White Elm (July)
'Sapporo Autumn Gold', Antella, Florence
Wych elm (Ulmus glabra) leaves and seeds
Asymmetry of leaf, Slippery Elm U. rubra
Mature bark, Slippery Elm U. rubra
Flowers of the hybrid elm cultivar 'Columella'
Corky wings, Winged Elm U. alata
U. laciniata samara
U. americana, Dufferin St., Toronto, c. 1914
Ulmus parvifolia bark
John Constable, 'Elm trees in Old Hall Park, East Bergholt' [1817] (Ulmus × hollandica )
John Constable, 'Study of an Elm Tree' [1821]
John Constable, 'The Cornfield' [1826] (Ulmus × hollandica )
Constable, 'Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Garden' [1823 version] (Ulmus × hollandica )
Jacob George Strutt, Elms at Mongewell, Oxfordshire [1830] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia')
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, 'Alte Ulmen im Prater' (:Old Elms in Prater) [1831]
James Duffield Harding, 'The Great Exhibition of 1851' (Ulmus minor 'Atinia', centre)
Arthur Hughes, 'Home from Sea' [1862] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia' )
Ford Madox Brown, 'Work' [1863] (Ulmus minor 'Atinia' )
[unknown artist] The American Elm [1879] (Ulmus americana)
Johannes Karel Christiaan Klinkenberg, 'Amsterdam' [1890] (Ulmus x hollandica  ‘Belgica'  )
Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Champs Elysées, Paris' [1889] (Ulmus × hollandica, 'orme femelle' )
Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Washington Arch, Spring' [1893] (Ulmus americana)
Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Church at Old Lyme' [1905] (Ulmus americana)
Frederick Childe Hassam, 'The East Hampton Elms in May' [1920] (Ulmus americana)
George Inness, 'Old Elm at Medfield' (Ulmus americana)
Unknown artist, 'The Cam near Trinity College, Cambridge', England (Ulmus atinia)
Sava Šumanović, Elm [1939]
Planting a Liberty Tree (un arbre de la liberté) during the French Revolution. Jean-Baptiste Lesueur, 1790
Balcony with elm symbol, overlooking the 'Crossroads of the Elm', Place Saint-Gervais, Paris<ref name="paris.fr"/>
President George W. Bush and Laura Bush planting a disease-resistant 'Jefferson' Elm before the White House, 2006
Elm suckers spreading before the abandoned summer royal palace in Tatoi, Greece, Μarch 2008
Ripe seeds of field elm
Rock elm Ulmus thomasii germinating
Seedling of wych elm Ulmus glabra (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Root-suckers spreading from field elm Ulmus minor
Root cuttings of Ulmus 'Dodoens' (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Rooted hardwood elm-cutting (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Rooting of softwood elm-cuttings under mist-propagation system (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Mutant variegated Smooth-leafed Elm graft (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Air layering of U. pumila (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
In vitro propagation of Ulmus chenmoui by bud meristem (photograph: Mihailo Grbić)
Aerial roots, hybrid elm cultivar
'Pouch' leaf-galls on a wych elm (aphid Tetraneura ulmi), Germany.
'Pouch' leaf-gall on elm leaf (aphid Tetraneura ulmi), Netherlands.
'Cockscomb' leaf-galls (aphid Colopha compressa), Poland.
'Bladder' leaf-galls on elm leaves (aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy.
'Bladder' leaf-galls on a narrow-leaved elm (aphid  Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy.
Aphids in leaf-gall, Poland.
'Pimple' leaf-galls on a field elm (mite Eriophyes ulmi), Spain.
White-letter Hairstreak Satyrium w-album, on {{tdes|Lutece|caps}}, Sweden. The larvae feed only on elm.
Egg of Satyrium w-album near flower-bud of an elm.
Elm-bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus (size: 2–3 mm), a vector for Dutch Elm Disease
Scolytus multistriatus 'galleries' under elm-bark.
Elm-leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola, which causes serious damage to elm foliage.
Xanthogaleruca luteola: caterpillar on elm-leaf, Germany.
Elm-leaf damage caused by Xanthogaleruca luteola, Germany.
Bacterial infection Erwinia carotovora of elm sap, which causes 'slime flux' ('wetwood') and staining of the trunk (here on a Camperdown Elm).

while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, "was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens".

Walt Disney Animation Studios re-imagining of Fred

Fredzilla

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Fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Walt Disney Animation Studios re-imagining of Fred
Fred. Art by David Nakayama.

Nicknamed Fredzilla, it is revealed that he is descended from the Ainu, a group of indigenous people of Japan and that he spent time growing up on a secret S.H.I.E.L.D. base in Japan.

Demographic history of Japan before the Meiji Restoration

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About the demographic features of the population of Japan before the Meiji Restoration.

About the demographic features of the population of Japan before the Meiji Restoration.

On the other hand, the populations of Ainu in eastern Ezo (including Chishima (Kuril Islands)) and western Ezo (including Karafuto (Sakhalin)) have been recorded since 1798 and 1810, respectively, and were thus included in the total population of Japan.