Air Corps Tactical School

Air Service Tactical SchoolAir Service Field Officers SchoolAir Corps Tactical School "short courseAir Service Field Officers' SchoolTactical School
The Air Corps Tactical School, also known as ACTS and "the Tactical School", was a military professional development school for officers of the United States Army Air Service and United States Army Air Corps, the first such school in the world.wikipedia
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Army Air Forces Tactical Center

Army Air Forces School of Applied TacticsArmy Air Force School of Applied TacticsAir Tactical School
ACTS was replaced in November 1942 by the Army Air Force School of Applied Tactics.
In addition to its training function, the school also developed as a tactical doctrine development center, assuming the functions formerly assigned the Air Corps Tactical School.

United States Army Air Forces

USAAFArmy Air ForcesU.S. Army Air Forces
The Air Corps Tactical School was notable as the birthplace of the Army Air Forces doctrine of daylight precision bombing.
The roots of the Army Air Forces arose in the formulation of theories of strategic bombing at the Air Corps Tactical School that gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force, beginning with those espoused by Brig.

Bomber Mafia

American bomber boys
Four former instructors of the school, the core of a group known as the "Bomber Mafia", were grouped together in the Air War Plans Division to produce the two war-winning plans—AWPD-1 and AWPD-42—based on the doctrine of precision daylight bombing that guided the wartime expansion and deployment of the Army Air Forces.
Developed over the years 1926–1929 at Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS) at Langley Field in Virginia, a forward-looking doctrine of daylight precision bombing was promulgated by Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell who advocated a greatly expanded role for the bomber force.

United States Army Air Corps

Army Air CorpsU.S. Army Air CorpsAir Corps
The Air Corps Tactical School, also known as ACTS and "the Tactical School", was a military professional development school for officers of the United States Army Air Service and United States Army Air Corps, the first such school in the world.
Instructors at the Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS), also then at Langley, took the concept one step further in March 1930 by recommending that the types instead be light and heavy, the latter capable of long range carrying a heavy bomb load that could also be used during daylight.

Maxwell Air Force Base

Maxwell FieldMaxwell AFBMaxwell AFB, Alabama
Created in 1920 at Langley Field, Virginia, it relocated to Maxwell Field, Alabama, in July 1931.
In 1927, Major Brown was the commander of the Air Corps Tactical School located at Langley Field, Virginia.

United States Army Air Service

Air Service, United States ArmyAir ServiceU.S. Army Air Service
The Air Corps Tactical School, also known as ACTS and "the Tactical School", was a military professional development school for officers of the United States Army Air Service and United States Army Air Corps, the first such school in the world.
The Air Service Tactical School was set up at Langley Field, Virginia, to train officers for higher command and to instruct in doctrine and the employment of military aviation.

Air War Plans Division

AWPD-1Air War Plan 42AWPD-42
Four former instructors of the school, the core of a group known as the "Bomber Mafia", were grouped together in the Air War Plans Division to produce the two war-winning plans—AWPD-1 and AWPD-42—based on the doctrine of precision daylight bombing that guided the wartime expansion and deployment of the Army Air Forces.
George wished to implement the strategic bombing theories that had been debated and refined at the Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS) during the preceding decade, but was faced with the sure knowledge that the Army and the War Department would not accept a strategy that assumed air attack would prevail alone.

Langley Air Force Base

Langley FieldLangley AFBLangley Field, Virginia
Created in 1920 at Langley Field, Virginia, it relocated to Maxwell Field, Alabama, in July 1931.

Oscar Westover

Oscar M. Westover
In 1924 Maj. Oscar Westover became the first commandant to exercise control over school activities.
From 1924 to 1926 he was assigned as commanding officer of Langley Field, Virginia, who was also the commandant of the Air Service Tactical School (which became the Air Corps Tactical School in 1926).

Building 800–Austin Hall

Building 800-Austin Hall
Congress appropriated almost $700,000 by July 1929 for new buildings, including Building 800-Austin Hall to house the Tactical School, and $200,000 to purchase acreage on which to build new officer quarters.
On January 25, 1930, President Herbert Hoover asked Congress to re-appropriate an additional $100,000 for the main school building for the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field.

Harold L. George

Harold GeorgeHarold Lee George
The unofficial leader of the group was the bombardment section chief and later director of the Department of Air Tactics and Strategy, Major Harold L. George.
An outspoken proponent of the industrial web theory, George taught at the Air Corps Tactical School and influenced a significant group of airmen passing through the school, ones who had powerful influence during and after World War II.

Industrial web theory

Although flawed and tested only under optimal conditions, the doctrine (originally known as the "industrial web theory") became the primary airpower strategy of the United States in the planning for World War II.
The theory was formulated by American airmen at the Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS) in the 1930s.

Claire Lee Chennault

Claire ChennaultClaire L. ChennaultChennault
Claire L. Chennault, chief of the pursuit section between 1931 and 1936, reasoned that the same technology that would increase the performance of the bomber would also eventually enable the single-engine fighter to challenge the bomber at high altitude, which it could not do in the years when the daylight bombing doctrine was formulated.
Chennault became the Chief of Pursuit Section at Air Corps Tactical School in the 1930s.

Eglin Air Force Base

Eglin AFBEglin FieldEglin AFB, Florida
Instead the Air Corps Board was moved to Eglin Field, Florida and absorbed by the Air Corps Proving Ground, while all remaining staff of the Tactical School were transferred to Washington, D.C., where they continued work (mainly the production of training literature) until 30 June 1942, after which the school went unstaffed until its formal dissolution in 1946.
In 1931, personnel of the Air Corps Tactical School, newly relocated to Maxwell Field, Alabama, sought a location for a bombing and gunnery range.

Haywood S. Hansell

Haywood HansellGeneral Hansell
ACTS graduate, instructor, and "Bomber Mafia" member Haywood S. Hansell, concurred that both the theorists and the authors of the AWPD-1 war plan (he was both) made a serious mistake in neglecting long-range fighter escort in their ideas.
In September 1930, he returned to Langley Field and was detached to the Air Corps Tactical School as armament officer.

Kenneth Walker

Kenneth N. WalkerKenneth Newton Walkerattacked the convoy
After service in various capacities, Walker graduated from the Air Corps Tactical School in 1929, and then served as an instructor there.

Donald Wilson (general)

Donald Wilson
For many years he was an influential instructor at the Air Corps Tactical School.

Thomas D. Milling

Thomas DeWitt MillingThomas DeW. MillingThomas Milling
Major Thomas DeWitt Milling was assigned as officer-in-charge of the Field Officers Course at the new school and sent to Langley in July 1920 to set it up.
Milling returned from France in January 1919 and served in a variety of assignments for the next seven years: assistant chief, Training and Operations Group, including president of a board to determine all aerial laws, rules and regulations, (January 1919 to June 1920); officer in charge, Air Service Field Officers' School, Langley Field, Virginia (July 1920 to June 1922); assistant commandant, Air Service Tactical School, Langley Field (June 1922 to January 1925); operations officer, Second Bombardment Wing, Langley Field (January to June 1925); and Air Service Engineering School, McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, completing the course in August 1926.

Muir S. Fairchild

Muir FairchildMuir Stephen FairchildMilitary Requirements
In June 1935 he graduated from the Air Corps Tactical School, along with strategic bombing advocates Haywood S. Hansell, Barney Giles, Vernon M. Guymon, Laurence S. Kuter, Lawson H. M. Sanderson and Hoyt S. Vandenberg, then became an Air Corps Tactical School instructor.

Henry Conger Pratt

Henry C. PrattH. Conger Pratt
Pratt became commandant of the Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS) and ex officio president of the Air Corps Board at Maxwell Field, Alabama, on March 14, his last assignment as a member of the Air Corps.

Roy C. Kirtland

Roy Carrington Kirtland
During the 1920s he served with the General Staff until his appointment in 1930 as commandant of the Langley Station and as acting commandant of the Air Corps Tactical School.

United States Army Command and General Staff College

Command and General Staff CollegeCommand and General Staff SchoolU.S. Army Command and General Staff College
In addition to the training of officers in more than 20 areas of military education, the school became the doctrine development center of the Air Corps, and a preparatory school for Air Corps officers aspiring to attendance at the U.S. Army's Command and General Staff College.

Billy Mitchell

William "Billy" MitchellWilliam MitchellGeneral Billy Mitchell
Gen. Billy Mitchell, that while ideally the service should be separate from the Army, it at the least should be centralized under an Air Service commander with some missions independent of direct support of troops.

Sandy Hook

Sandy Hook, New JerseySandy Hook, NJHook
An "Air Service School of Application" for technical training in aeronautical engineering, similar to the Ordnance School of Application at Sandy Hook, New Jersey, was set up at McCook Field, and began its first class 10 November 1919.

McCook Field

Dayton, OhioMcCook Field, Ohio
An "Air Service School of Application" for technical training in aeronautical engineering, similar to the Ordnance School of Application at Sandy Hook, New Jersey, was set up at McCook Field, and began its first class 10 November 1919.