Air mass

air massesair streamMaritime Tropical air massesmasses of airaircold air massmass of airpolar airpolar air masspolar maritime air
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.wikipedia
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Weather front

frontal systemfrontal boundaryfront
Weather fronts separate air masses with different density (temperature and/or moisture) characteristics.
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.

Meteorology

meteorologicalmeteorologistmeteorologists
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
Just after World War I, a group of meteorologists in Norway led by Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones, and introduced the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses.

Adiabatic process

adiabaticadiabaticallyadiabatic cooling
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).
Adiabatic heating occurs in the Earth's atmosphere when an air mass descends, for example, in a katabatic wind, Foehn wind, or chinook wind flowing downhill over a mountain range.

Sahara

Sahara DesertSaharanSaharan Desert
Continental Tropical air masses (cT) are a type of tropical air produced by the subtropical ridge over large areas of land and typically originate from low-latitude deserts such as the Sahara Desert in northern Africa, which is the major source of these air masses.
The prevailing air mass lying above the Sahara is the continental tropical (cT) air mass, which is hot and dry.

Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).
The subtropical flow directs northeasterly winds to blow across southern Asia, creating dry air streams which produce clear skies over India.

Warm front

warm sectorwarmGulf moisture
Warm fronts are usually preceded by stratiform precipitation and fog.
A warm front is a density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
Warm fronts are usually preceded by stratiform precipitation and fog.
Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle".

Stationary front

stationarystationary frontsboundary
When a front becomes stationary, and the density contrast across the frontal boundary vanishes, the front can degenerate into a line which separates regions of differing wind velocity, known as a shearline.
A stationary front (also known as quasi-stationary front) is a weather frontal [transition] zone between two air masses, where neither air mass is strong enough to advance into the other at least 5 knots (about 6 miles per hour or about 9 kilometers per hour) at the ground surface.

Surface weather analysis

cold frontsurface analysissurface
In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored lines and symbols, depending on the type of front.
Fronts in meteorology are the leading edges of air masses that have a density, air temperature, and humidity different from the air mass it is invading.

Dry line

drylinedry weather front
Cold fronts may feature narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, and may on occasion be preceded by squall lines or dry lines.
In the dry sector west of the dry line, clear skies are the rule due to the dryness of the air mass sweeping off the Rocky Mountains in North America, and the Aravalli range in India.

Cold front

cold frontsArctic blastcold
Cold fronts may feature narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, and may on occasion be preceded by squall lines or dry lines.

Spatial Synoptic Classification system

Based upon the Bergeron air mass classification scheme is the Spatial Synoptic Classification system, or SSC.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

Temperature

temperaturesair temperaturewarm
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

Water vapor

water vapourvaporevaporation
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

Tor Bergeron

Bergeron
The Bergeron classification is the most widely accepted form of air mass classification, though others have produced more refined versions of this scheme over different regions of the globe.

Köppen climate classification

ClimateKöppenKöppen-Geiger climate classification system
The first letter describes its moisture properties, with c used for continental air masses (dry) and m for maritime air masses (moist).

Tropics

tropicaltropictropical zone
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).

Polar regions of Earth

polar regionpolarpolar regions
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).

Arctic

Arctic regionThe Arcticcircumpolar
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
Its source region: T for Tropical, P for Polar, A for arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for Equatorial, and S for superior air (an adiabatically drying and warming air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere).

Gulf Stream

Atlantic Gulf StreamGolf StreamGulf-stream
An example of this might be a polar air mass blowing over the Gulf Stream, denoted as "cPk".

Horse latitudes

subtropical ridgesubtropical anticyclonesubtropical high
Those that develop over land (continental) are drier and hotter than those that develop over oceans, and travel poleward on the western periphery of the subtropical ridge.

Caribbean Sea

CaribbeanCaribbean coastMar Caribe
Maritime tropical air masses that affect the United States originate in the Caribbean Sea, southern Gulf of Mexico, and tropical Atlantic east of Florida through the Bahamas.

Gulf of Mexico

GulfGulf CoastMexican Gulf
Maritime tropical air masses that affect the United States originate in the Caribbean Sea, southern Gulf of Mexico, and tropical Atlantic east of Florida through the Bahamas.