Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Air pollution from a coking oven
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
2016 air quality indicator – light colors have lower air quality and thus higher air pollution.
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
Aviation is a major source of air pollution.
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro, Georgia, in preparation for spring planting
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, 2018
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
Beijing air in 2005 after rain (left) and a smoggy day (right)
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
E-waste processing in Agbogbloshie, Ghana using open-burning of electronics to access valuable metals like copper. Open burning of plastics is common in many parts of the world without the capacity for processing. Especially without proper protections, heavy metals and other contaminates can seep into the soil, and create water pollution and air pollution.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground-level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
Up to 30% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to air pollutant levels exceeding EU air quality standards. Around 98% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to levels of air pollutants deemed damaging to health by the World Health Organization's more stringent guidelines.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Share of deaths from indoor air pollution
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Air quality monitoring, New Delhi, India
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
Share of deaths from outdoor air pollution, OWID
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
Comparison of footprint-based and transboundary pollution-based relationships among G20 nations for the number of PM2.5-related premature deaths.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Unprotected exposure to PM2.5 air pollution can be equivalent to smoking multiple cigarettes per day, potentially increasing the risk of cancer, which is mainly the result of environmental factors.
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Share of the population exposed to air pollution levels above WHO guidelines, OWID
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Artist's illustration of an advanced ET civilization with industrial pollution
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Support for a ban on high-emission vehicles in city centres in Europe, China and the US from respondents to the European Investment Bank Climate Survey
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
Support, use and infrastructure-expansion of forms of public transport that do not cause air pollution may be a critical key alternative to pollution
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Tarps and netting are often used to reduce the amount of dust released from construction sites.
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Smog in Cairo
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
Nitrogen dioxide concentrations as measured from satellite 2002–2004
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
Deaths from air pollution in 2004
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Thermal oxidisers are air pollution abatement options for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odorous emissions.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Deaths from air pollution per 100,000 inhabitants (IHME, 2019)
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
Burning of items polluting Jamestown environment in Accra, Ghana
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Fossil fuels emit most carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas as a whole.

- Climate change mitigation

Recognition of the climate crisis, pollution and other negative impacts caused by fossil fuels has led to a widespread policy transition and activist movement focused on ending their use in favor of sustainable energy.

- Fossil fuel

Some of these efforts have been successful at the international level, such as the Montreal Protocol, which reduced the release of harmful ozone depleting chemicals, and the 1985 Helsinki Protocol, which reduced sulphur emissions, while others, such as international action on climate change, have been less successful.

- Air pollution

In 2021, the International Energy Agency concluded that no new fossil fuel extraction projects could be opened if the global economy and society wants to avoid the worst impacts of climate change and meet international goals for climate change mitigation.

- Fossil fuel

fossil-fuel power plants and biomass power plants both have smoke stacks (see for example environmental impact of the coal industry)

- Air pollution

A review of studies by the Stanford Solutions Project concluded that relying on Carbon capture and storage/utilization (CCS/U) is a dangerous distraction, with it (in most and large-scale cases) being expensive, increasing air pollution and mining, inefficient and unlikely to be deployable at the scale required in time.

- Climate change mitigation
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

1 related topic with Alpha

Overall

Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).

Renewable energy

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Energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale.

Energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale.

Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)
A bus fueled by biodiesel
The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China
Wind energy generation by region over time.
Global map of wind power density potential.
Satellite image of the Bhadla Solar Park in India, it is the largest Solar Park in the world
Global map of horizontal irradiation.
Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
Enhanced geothermal system (see [[:File:EGS diagram.svg|file description]] for details)
Rance Tidal Power Station, France
Estimated power demand over a week in 2012 and 2020, Germany, showing the need for dispatchable generation rather than baseload generation in the grid.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Comparing worldwide energy use, the growth of renewable energy is shown by the green line
Worldwide growth of wind capacity (1996–2018)
Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter is the largest in the world as of April 2013.
Ivanpah solar plant in the Mojave Desert, California, United States
Solar towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar thermal plants in Spain
Solar panels at the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm
Brazil produces bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. A typical gas station with dual fuel service is marked "A" for alcohol (ethanol) and "G" for gasoline.
Geothermal plant at The Geysers, California, US
Most respondents to a climate survey conducted in 2021-2022 by the European Investment Bank say countries should back renewable energy to fight climate change.
A concept of a super grid.
Burbo, NW-England
Sunrise at the Fenton Wind Farm in Minnesota, US
The CSP-station Andasol in Andalusia, Spain
Three Gorges Dam and Gezhouba Dam, China
Shop selling PV panels in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Stump harvesting increases recovery of biomass from forests
A small, roof-top mounted PV system in Bonn, Germany
The community-owned Westmill Solar Park in South East England
Komekurayama photovoltaic power station in Kofu, Japan
Krafla, a geothermal power station in Iceland

Deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.

Renewable energy stands in contrast to fossil fuels, which are being used far more quickly than they are being replenished.

It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels, and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that could amount to trillions of dollars annually.