Ajuran Sultanate

Ajuran EmpireAjuranAjuran periodAge of the AjuranAjuran-Portuguese warsGaren DynastyinvasionAge of the AjuransAjuran armyAjuran Dynasty
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, دولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian ocean trade.wikipedia
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Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, دولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian ocean trade. They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages.
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.

Maritime history of Somalia

Somali city-statesSomali maritime enterpriseSomali maritime history
Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were strengthened or re-established, and foreign trade and commerce in the coastal provinces flourished with ships sailing to and coming from many kingdoms and empires in East Asia, South Asia, Europe, the Near East, North Africa and East Africa.
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, the latter of which maintained profitable maritime contacts with Arabia, India, Venetia, Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful empires dominated the regional trade in the Horn, including the Adal Sultanate, the Ajuran Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Zagwe dynasty, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
The sultanate covered much of southern Somalia, with its domain extending from Mareeg in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.

Jubba River

JubbaJuba RiverJuba
As an hydraulic empire, the Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Shebelle and Jubba rivers.
During the Middle Ages Jubba river was under the Ajuran Empire of the Horn of Africa which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations and was the only hydraulic empire in Africa.

Kismayo

KismayuKismaayoKisimayo
The sultanate covered much of southern Somalia, with its domain extending from Mareeg in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south. With the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in Afgooye, Kismayo and other areas in the Jubba and Shabelle valleys increased their productivity.
During the Middle Ages, Kismayo and its surrounding area was part of the Ajuran Empire that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.

Empire

imperialempiresimperial power
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, دولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian ocean trade.
The Ajuran Sultanate was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
The House of Garen was the ruling hereditary dynasty of the Ajuran Sultanate.

Barawa

BaraweBravaBaraawe
Other important cities in the Sultanate were Mogadishu and Barawa. The urban centers of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, and their respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State.
During the Middle Ages, Barawa and its surrounding area was part of the Ajuran Empire that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.

Shebelle River

ShebelleShabelleShabelle River
As an hydraulic empire, the Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Shebelle and Jubba rivers.
During the middle ages Shebelle river was under the Ajuran Empire of the Horn of Africa which utilized the Shebelle River for its plantations and was the only hydraulic empire in Africa.

Somali aristocratic and court titles

Somali SultanatesAwnaa'ibs
The Ajuran nobility used many of the typical Somali aristocratic and court titles, with the Garen rulers styled Imam.
The title was also employed by the leaders of the influential Ajuran Sultanate, the House of Garen.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
These leaders were the sultanate's highest authority, and counted multiple Sultans, Emirs, and Kings as clients or vassals.
Various Somali Sultanates also existed, including the Adal Sultanate (led by the Walashma dynasty of the Ifat Sultanate), Sultanate of Mogadishu, Ajuran Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Geledi Sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo.

Mogadishu

Mogadishu, SomaliaMogadiscioMuqdisho
The urban centers of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, and their respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State.
During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, and later by the Ajuran Sultanate.

Sultanate of Mogadishu

Mogadishu SultanateMuzaffar dynastyMuzzaffar
It also utilized the Mogadishan currency originally minted by the Sultanate of Mogadishu, which later became incorporated into the Ajuran sultanate.
It rose as one of the preeminent powers in the Horn of Africa during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, before being served as the capital for the Ajuran Empire during the early 13th century.

Mareeg

The sultanate covered much of southern Somalia, with its domain extending from Mareeg in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south. The Garen rulers also had seasonal palaces in Mareeg, Qelafo and Merca, which they would periodically visit to practice primae noctis.
The town was founded in the 13th century, during the period marked by the local ascendancy of the Ajuran Empire.

Ajuran currency

For trade, the Ajuran Sultanate minted its own Ajuran currency.
Ajuran currency was an old coinage system minted in the Ajuran Sultanate.

Merca

MerkaMarka
The urban centers of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, and their respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State. The Garen rulers also had seasonal palaces in Mareeg, Qelafo and Merca, which they would periodically visit to practice primae noctis.
During the Middle Ages, the area was one of several prominent administrative centers of the Ajuran Sultanate.

Afgooye

AfgoyeAfgoi
With the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in Afgooye, Kismayo and other areas in the Jubba and Shabelle valleys increased their productivity.
During the Middle Ages, Afgooye and much of the surrounding area in southern Somalia was governed by the Ajuran Empire.

Sultan

SultanateSultansSulṭān
They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages. These leaders were the sultanate's highest authority, and counted multiple Sultans, Emirs, and Kings as clients or vassals.

Hydraulic empire

hydraulic despotismhydraulic civilizationcontrols the planet through a monopoly on the production of clean water
As an hydraulic empire, the Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Shebelle and Jubba rivers.
The Ajuran Sultanate of the Horn of Africa was the only hydraulic empire in Africa, apart from Ancient Egypt.

Kelafo

QelafoCallafoKallafo
The sultanate covered much of southern Somalia, with its domain extending from Mareeg in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south. The Garen rulers also had seasonal palaces in Mareeg, Qelafo and Merca, which they would periodically visit to practice primae noctis.
The House of Garen was the ruling hereditary dynasty of the Ajuran Sultanate.

Mogadishu currency

coinscurrencyMogadishan currency
It also utilized the Mogadishan currency originally minted by the Sultanate of Mogadishu, which later became incorporated into the Ajuran sultanate.
For trade, the Ajuran Empire minted its own Ajuran currency.

Hydraulic engineering

hydraulic engineerwater engineeringHydrotechnics
Through hydraulic engineering, it also constructed many of the limestone wells and cisterns of the state that are still operative and in use today.
In the 15th century, the Somali Ajuran Empire was the only hydraulic empire in Africa.

Mombasa

Mombasa, KenyaMombassaMombassa, Kenya
Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt and Syria), together with Merca and Barawa also served as transit stops for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa.
In 1585 a joint military expedition between the Somalis of Ajuran Empire and the Turks of Ottoman Empire led by Emir 'Ali Bey successfully liberated Mombasa and other coastal cities in Southeast Africa from the Portuguese colonizers.

Adal Sultanate

AdalSultanate of AdalAdal Kingdom
The Ajuran military supremacy forced the Oromo conquerors to reverse their migrations towards the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Adalites, devastating the two warring empires in the process.
It was therefore flanked to the south by the Ajuran Empire (Kingdom of Ajuuran) and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire (Abassin Empire).