A report on Akbar

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

- Akbar
Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

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Overall

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir

Jahangir

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The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Potrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, giving birth to Prince Salim in Fatehpur Sikri.
Emperor Jahangir weighing his son Prince Khurram (the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar (1615).
Jahangir with falcon on horseback
The Tomb of Jahangir in Shahdara, Lahore
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's making a Dua
Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi
Jahangir and Anarkali

Prince Salim was the third son born to Akbar and his favorite Queen Consort, Mariam-uz-Zamani in Fatehpur Sikri on 31 August 1569.

Artistic depiction of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani, the favorite and most influential sultana of Emperor Akbar.

Mariam-uz-Zamani

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Mariam-uz-Zamani ; (c.

Mariam-uz-Zamani ; (c.

Artistic depiction of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani, the favorite and most influential sultana of Emperor Akbar.
Artistic impression of Mariam-uz-Zamani, chief Rajput Queen of Akbar, commonly known as Jodha bai.
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam-uz-Zamani begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.
A painting describing the scene of the birth of the 4th Mughal emperor of India, Jahangir.
Embriodered portrait of Mariam-uz-Zamani
Khawabgah of Mariam-uz-Zamani within her palace in Fatehpur Sikri, commonly known as Jodha bai Palace.
Begum Shahi Mosque commissioned by Jahangir in honor of his mother at Lahore.
A 19th-century sketch of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani.
Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani, Sikandra, Agra.
Flight of stairs leading to the actual grave of Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum.
Portrait of Mariam-uz-Zamani

1542 – 19 May 1623), commonly known by the misnomer Jodha Bai, was the chief consort and principal Rajput wife as well as the favourite empress consort of the third Mughal emperor, Akbar.

Portrait of Humayun

Humayun

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The second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

The second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.

The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.

Bairam Khan

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The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.
Bairam Khan is assassinated by an Afghan at Patan, 1561, Akbarnama

Muhammad Bairam Khan (18 January 150131 January 1561), commonly known as Bairam Khan or Bayram Khan was an important military commander, and later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century

Babur

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The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur Family Tree
17th-century portrait of Babur
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
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Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Babur crossing the Indus River
Babur and his heir Humayun
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
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He wrote the Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic; it was translated into Persian during the reign (1556–1605) of his grandson, the Emperor Akbar.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.

Agra

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City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 320 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.
The Town and Fort of Agra, an engraving.
Map of the city, c. 1914
Agra, Main Street, c. 1858
The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The sweet dish petha, which is a symbol of Mughal legacy.
Agra Cantt Railway Station
Railway Map of Agra (the line to Jaipur has meanwhile been converted to broad gauge)
Agra Cantt. Railway Station
Inner Ring Road link Yamuna Expressway to Lucknow expessway, Fatehabad Road, Shamshabad Road, NH-3, NH-11 Agra
Agra University
St John College
St Peter's College
Agra College
The most common front view of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the Yamuna River (northern view)
Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal from Agra fort
The Jahangiri Mahal, the largest residence in the complex
Musamman Burj, an octagonal Tower which was the residence of Shah Jahan's favourite empress, Mumtaz Maḥal
The Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque
Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra was the foremost city of the Indian subcontinent and the capital of the Mughal Empire under Mughal emperors Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

Fatehpur Sikri

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Town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kos Minar#793 at 12-mile on Agra-Fatehpur Sikri Road section of National Highway 21
General plan of Fatehpur Sikri city in 1917.
Jama Masjid, Fatehpur Sikri
Tomb of Salim Chishti in Jama Masjid courtyard, Fatehpur Sikri
Panch Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri
Hiran Minar, Fatehpur Sikri
Buland Darwaza
Buland Darwaza backside.
King's Gate
Palace of Akbar's favorite consort, Queen Mariam-uz-Zamani
Diwan-i-Khas
Mariam-uz-Zamani's kitchen
Akbar's Harem Complex
Panoramic view of Fatehpur Sikri Palace

Situated 35.7 killometers from the district headquarters Agra, Fatehpur Sikri itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

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The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

His reign is known for doing away with the liberal policies initiated by Akbar.

Emperor Akbar's depicted with a falcon in the 17th-century

Din-i Ilahi

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Emperor Akbar's depicted with a falcon in the 17th-century
Abu'l-Fazl, one of the disciples of Din-i-Ilahi, presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature

The Dīn-i-Ilāhī, known during its time as Tawḥīd-i-Ilāhī ("Divine Monotheism", ) or Divine Faith, was a new syncretic religion or spiritual leadership program propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582, intending to merge some of the elements and Create a new religion of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects.