Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

- Akbar

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Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar ((r.

Mughal emperors

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Akbar Shah II and his four sons

Akbar, for instance, was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput.


The second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.


City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 378 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.
The Town and Fort of Agra, an engraving.
Map of the city, c. 1914
Agra, Main Street, c. 1858
The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The sweet dish petha, which is a symbol of Mughal legacy.
Agra Cantt Railway Station
Railway Map of Agra (the line to Jaipur has meanwhile been converted to broad gauge)
Agra Cantt. Railway Station
Inner Ring Road link Yamuna Expressway to Lucknow expessway, Fatehabad Road, Shamshabad Road, NH-3, NH-11 Agra
Agra University
St John College
St Peter's College
Agra College
The most common front view of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the Yamuna River (northern view)
Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal from Agra fort
The Jahangiri Mahal, the largest residence in the complex
Musamman Burj, an octagonal Tower which was the residence of Shah Jahan's favourite empress, Mumtaz Maḥal
The Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque
Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra was the foremost city of the Indian subcontinent and the capital of the Mughal Empire under Mughal emperors Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

Mughal architecture

Type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,
Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is the last of the imperial mosques built by the Mughals
The Alamgiri Gate at Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, was named for Aurangzeb, who was sometimes referred to as "Alamgir".
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, which was built by Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife, Dilras Banu Begum
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets at Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar
Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Islamia White Mosque
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India
Buland Darwaza, Agra was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory.
The tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti is considered to be one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture
Begum Shahi Mosque is Lahore's earliest dated Mughal period mosque
The tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal.
The Tomb of Jahangir at Lahore does not have a dome as Jahangir forbade construction of a dome over his tomb.
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque
The Shalimar Gardens, Lahore are among the most famous Mughal gardens.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The central chamber of the Shahi Hammam is decorated with frescoes
Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is now the second-largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.
Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka is an incomplete fort built by Prince Azam Shah
The 18th-century Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
Jali decorative work at the Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Jahangir's grave at the Tomb of Jahangir, decorated with parchin kari work.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
The shahada in Arabic calligraphy at the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audience) at Lahore Fort.
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan. The mosque is not built in the Mughal style, but reflects a heavy Persian influence.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.

It also further incorporated and syncretized influences from wider Indian architecture, especially during the reign of Akbar (r.


The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Potrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, giving birth to Prince Salim in Fatehpur Sikri.
Emperor Jahangir weighing his son Prince Khurram (the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar (1615).
Jahangir with falcon on horseback
The Tomb of Jahangir in Shahdara, Lahore
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's making a Dua
Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi
Jahangir and Anarkali

Prince Salim was the third son born to Akbar and his favorite Queen Consort, Mariam-uz-Zamani in Fatehpur Sikri on 31 August 1569.

Fatehpur Sikri

Town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kos Minar#793 at 12-mile on Agra-Fatehpur Sikri Road section of National Highway 21
General plan of Fatehpur Sikri city in 1917.
Jama Masjid, Fatehpur Sikri
Tomb of Salim Chishti in Jama Masjid courtyard, Fatehpur Sikri
Panch Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri
Hiran Minar, Fatehpur Sikri
Buland Darwaza
Buland Darwaza backside.
King's Gate
Palace of Akbar's favorite consort, Queen Mariam-uz-Zamani
Mariam-uz-Zamani's kitchen
Akbar's Harem Complex
Panoramic view of Fatehpur Sikri Palace

Situated 37 kms from the district headquarters Agra, Fatehpur Sikri itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.

Sher Shah Suri

Sher Shah Suri

Imagined sketch of Sher Shah Suri by Afghan artist Abdul Ghafoor Breshna
An inspection of Sher Shah Suri's Great North Road
Rupiya released by Sher Shah Suri, 1538–1545 CE, was the first Rupee
Sher Shah Suri Tomb at Sasaram
The Tomb (covered in green)
Lal Darwaza, the southern gate of Shergarh
Rohtas Fort's Kabuli Gate
Qila-i-Kuhna mosque, built by Sher Shah in 1541
Sher Mandal built in his honour by the Mughals
Copper Dam issued from Narnaul mint

His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak

Abu'l-Fazl presenting Akbarnama to Akbar
Young Akbar leads a Mughal Army of 10,000 during the Second Battle of Panipat, against more than 30,000 adversaries led by Hemu.
The court of Akbar, an ill ama
Abu'l Fazl Ibn Mubarak and Akbar (D. 1602 AD)

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, also known as Abul Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 22 August 1602 ), was the grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, from his appointment in 1579 until his death in 1602.

Mughal painting

Particular style of South Asian, particularly North Indian , painting confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums (muraqqa).

Govardhan, Emperor Jahangir visiting the ascetic Jadrup, 1616–20
The Emperor Shah Jahan standing on a globe, with a halo and European-style putti, c. 1618–19 to 1629.
Abu'l Hasan, Emperor Jahangir at the Jharoka window of the Agra Fort, c. 1620, Aga Khan Museum
Nilgai by Ustad Mansur (fl. 1590–1624), who specialized in birds and animal studies for albums.
Babur Receives a Courtier by Farrukh Beg c. 1580–85. Opaque watercolor and gold on paper, painted and mounted within borders, from a Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ. Still using the style of Persian miniature.
Princes of the House of Timur, attributed to the Persian Abd as-Samad, c. 1550–1555, with additions in the next century under Jahangir.
Emperor Jahangir weighs Prince Khurram by Manohar Das, 1610–15, from Jahangir's own copy of the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri. The names of the main figures are noted on their clothes, and the artist shown at bottom. British Museum
A durbar scene with the newly crowned Emperor Aurangzeb in his golden throne. Though he did not encourage Mughal painting, some of the best work was done during his reign.
The scribe and painter of a Khamsa of Nizami manuscript in the British Library, made for Akbar, 1610
Portrait of Akbar
A noble lady, Mughal dynasty, India. 17th century. Color and gold on paper. Freer Gallery of Art F1907.219
Nur Jahan
Shah Jahan on a terrace holding a pendant set with his portrait
Daud Khan Karrani receives a Kaftan of honor from Munim Khan
Victory of Ali Quli Khan on the river Gomti-Akbarnama, 1561
Mir Sayyid Ali's depiction of a young scholar in the Mughal Empire, reading and writing a commentary on the Quran, 1559.
Battle scene from the Hamzanama of Akbar, 1570
The Submission of the rebel brothers Ali Quli and Bahadur Khan. Akbarnama, 1590–95<ref>{{cite web|last=Basawan & Chitra|url=http://warfare.atspace.eu/Moghul/Akbar/Akbarnama.htm|title=The Submission of the rebel brothers Ali Quli and Bahadur Khan-Akbarnama|date=1590–1595|work=Akbarnama}}</ref>
Akbar riding the elephant Hawa'I pursuing another elephant across a collapsing bridge of boats (right), 1561
Pir Muhammad Drowns While Crossing the Narbada-Akbarnama, 1562
Akbar receiving his sons at Fatehpur Sikri. Akbarnama, 1573
Alexander is Lowered into the Sea, from a Khamsa (Quintet) of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi c. 1597–98, attributed to Mukanda.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/140003774?rpp=20&pg=8&ao=on&ft=mughal+empire&pos=145|title=Alexander is Lowered into the Sea|website=www.metmuseum.org|access-date=2018-12-14}}</ref>
Balchand,<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Smart|first=Ellen|date=1999|title=The Death of Ināyat Khān by the Mughal Artist Bālchand|journal=Artibus Asiae. Supplementum|volume=58|pages=273-279|issn=1423-0526|jstor=3250020}}</ref> The Dying Inayat Khan, c. 1618, Bodleian Library, Oxford
Mughal Prince visits a Holy Man
A Mughal prince and ladies in a garden, 18th century
A young woman playing a Veena to a parakeet, a symbol of her absent lover. 18th-century painting in the provincial Mughal style of Bengal
Female performer with a tanpura, 18th century. Color and gold on paper. Freer Gallery of Art F1907.195
Ascetic Seated on Leopard's Skin, late 18th century
Mughal Ganjifa playing cards, early 19th century, with miniature paintings – courtesy of the Wovensouls collection
The figural decoration of this example shows a strong relationship to paintings of the 17th century.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/451479|website=www.metmuseum.org|access-date=2018-12-17|title=Box with Scenes of an Emperor Receiving Gifts, early to mid-17th century}}</ref>

A vivid Kashmiri tradition of mural paintings flourished between the 9th and 17th centuries, as seen in the murals of Alchi Monastery or Tsaparang: a number of Kashimiri painters were employed by Akbar and some influence of their art can be seen in various Mughal works, such as the Hamzanama.