Akbar

Akbar the GreatEmperor AkbarJalaluddin Muhammed AkbarJalal-ud-Din Muhammad AkbarMughal Emperor AkbarJalal ud-Din Muhammad AkbarJalaluddin Muhammad AkbarEmperor Akbar of IndiaEmperor Akbar the GreatGrand Kahn Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605 ), popularly known as Akbar I, also as Akbar the Great (Akbar-i-azam ), was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.wikipedia
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Bairam Khan

Bairam Khan-i-KhananBehrám Khán
Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India.
18 January 1501) was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.

Fatehpur Sikri

FatehpurFatehpūr SikrīFuttepore
Akbar's courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, and learning.
The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was later completely abandoned in 1610.

Mughal architecture

MughalMughal styleMughal architectural style
Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture.
His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign.

Jahangir

SalimJehangirEmperor Jahangir
Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim, later known as Jahangir.
Prince Salim, later Jahangir, was born on 31 August 1569, in Fatehpur Sikri, to Akbar and Mariam-uz-Zamani.

Hamida Banu Begum

HamidaHamida BanoHamida Banu Begum (Mariam Makani)
There he met and married the then 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza.
undefined 1527 – 29 August 1604, ) was a wife of the second Mughal emperor Humayun and the mother of his successor, the third Mughal emperor Akbar.

Humayun

Emperor HumayunHimayunHumayun-nama
Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.

Agra

ĀgrāAgra Cantt.Agra, UP
Akbar's courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, and learning.
It was known then as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān.

Ruqaiya Sultan Begum

Ruqaiya
Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar.
undefined 1542 – 19 January 1626) was empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 1557 to 1605 as the first wife and chief consort of the third Mughal emperor Akbar.

Hindal Mirza

Hindal
There he met and married the then 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza.
He was also the older brother of Gulbadan Begum (the author of Humayun-nama), the younger half-brother of the second Mughal emperor Humayun, as well as the paternal uncle and father-in-law of the third Mughal emperor Akbar.

Indo-Persian culture

Indo-PersianIndo-Persian interestsinfluence on Indian clothing
Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.
Muzaffar Alam, a noted scholar of Mughal and Indo-Persian history, suggests that Persian became the official lingua franca of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature.

Sher Shah Suri

Sher ShahSher KhanShah Sur
Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.

Kalanaur, Punjab, India

Kalanaur
In Kalanaur, Punjab, the 14-year-old Akbar was enthroned by Bairam Khan on a newly constructed platform, which still stands.
The town has historical significance as Mughal Emperor Akbar, was enthroned in a garden near the Kalanaur by Bairam Khan.

Umerkot

AmarkotRana JagirUmerkot Jagir
Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 (the fourth day of Rajab, 949 AH) at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh (in modern-day Pakistan), where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad.
The city was the birthplace of the Mughal Emperor Akbar.

Umarkot Fort

Rajput Fortress
Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 (the fourth day of Rajab, 949 AH) at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh (in modern-day Pakistan), where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad.
is a fort located in Umerkot, Sindh, also called Amarkot (undefined), Emperor Akbar was born in Umarkot Fort when his father Humayun fled from the military defeats at the hands of Sher Shah Suri on 15 October 1542.

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak

Abul FazlAbul FazalAbu'l-Fazl
Such was the impact of these weapons that Akbar's Vizier, Abul Fazl, once declared that "with the exception of Turkey, there is perhaps no country in which its guns has more means of securing the Government than [India]."
Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.

Sanskrit

Skt.classical SanskritSanskrit language
He was fond of literature, and created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Urdu, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, translators, artists, calligraphers, scribes, bookbinders and readers.
There were exceptions and short periods of imperial support for Sanskrit, mostly concentrated during the reign of the tolerant Mughal emperor Akbar.

Second Battle of Panipat

Battle of Panipat1556Battle of Panipat (1556)
Urged by Bairam Khan, who re-marshalled the Mughal army before Hemu could consolidate his position, Akbar marched on Delhi to reclaim it. His army, led by Bairam Khan, defeated Hemu and the Sur army on 5 November 1556 at the Second Battle of Panipat, 50 mi north of Delhi.
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on November 5, 1556, between the forces of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the king at Delhi and forces of Emperor Akbar.

Maham Anga

Maham Anaga
Urged on by his foster mother, Maham Anga, and his relatives, Akbar decided to dispense with the services of Bairam Khan.
Maham Anga (died 1562) was the chief nurse of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

Adham Khan

Adham Khan Koka
A Mughal army under the command of his foster brother, Adham Khan, and a Mughal commander, Pir Muhammad Khan, invaded Malwa.
Adham Khan (1531 – 16 May 1562) was a general of Akbar.

Farooqi dynasty

Miran Muhammad Shah IFaruqiKhandesh
The Afghan ruler, Baz Bahadur, was defeated at the Battle of Sarangpur and fled to Khandesh for refuge leaving behind his harem, treasure, and war elephants.
The Farooqi dynasty' (also spelt Farooqui, Faruqi) was the ruling dynasty of the Khandesh sultanate from its inception in 1382 till its annexation by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1601.

Sindh

Sindh ProvinceSindal-Sind
Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum, who gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542.

Hemu

Hem Chandra VikramadityaHemchandra VikramadityaSamrat Vikramaditya Hemu
The gravest threat came from Hemu, a minister and general of one of the Sur rulers, who had proclaimed himself Hindu emperor and expelled the Mughals from the Indo-Gangetic plains.
He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Humayun and Akbar in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles for Adil Shah.

Mughal painting

MughalMughal artMughal miniature
Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture.
Mughal painting developed and flourished during the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

Cannon

cannonsaircraft cannon
Fathullah Shirazi, a Persian inhabitant of India who worked for Akbar in the Mughal Empire, developed a volley gun in the 16th century.

Siege of Chittorgarh (1567–1568)

Siege of Chittorgarh1567–1568Patta
Chittorgarh fell on February 1568 after a siege of four months.
Forces led by Akbar surrounded and besieged 8,000 Rajputs and around 40,000 peasants under the command of Jaimal in Chittorgarh.