A report on Mughal architectureAkbar and Aurangzeb

The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,
Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is the last of the imperial mosques built by the Mughals
Akbar as a boy
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Alamgiri Gate at Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, was named for Aurangzeb, who was sometimes referred to as "Alamgir".
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, which was built by Aurangzeb in the memory of his wife, Dilras Banu Begum
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
The use of elephant-shaped column brackets at Lahore Fort reflects Hindu influences on Mughal Architecture during the reign of Akbar
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Islamia White Mosque
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, India
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Buland Darwaza, Agra was built by Akbar the Great to commemorate his victory.
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
The tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti is considered to be one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Begum Shahi Mosque is Lahore's earliest dated Mughal period mosque
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
The tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is often regarded as a draft of the Tāj Mahal.
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
The Tomb of Jahangir at Lahore does not have a dome as Jahangir forbade construction of a dome over his tomb.
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
The Shalimar Gardens, Lahore are among the most famous Mughal gardens.
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
The central chamber of the Shahi Hammam is decorated with frescoes
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan was the largest mosque in the world for 313 years, and is now the second-largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka is an incomplete fort built by Prince Azam Shah
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
The 18th-century Sunehri Mosque is named for its gilded domes.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
The Darwaza-i-Rauza (Great Gate) of the Taj Mahal.
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Jali decorative work at the Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri.
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Lahori Gate of the Red Fort, Delhi, India.
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Jahangir's grave at the Tomb of Jahangir, decorated with parchin kari work.
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Tomb of Nithar Begum at Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India.
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
The shahada in Arabic calligraphy at the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Akbar's Tomb at Agra, India uses red sandstone and white marble, like many of the Mughal monuments. The Taj Mahal is a notable exception, as it uses only marble.
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of private audience) at Lahore Fort.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan. The mosque is not built in the Mughal style, but reflects a heavy Persian influence.
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
One of the Tombs of Ustad-Shagird, Nakodar, India.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

It also further incorporated and syncretized influences from wider Indian architecture, especially during the reign of Akbar (r.

- Mughal architecture

The last of the great Mughal architects was Aurangzeb, who built the Badshahi Mosque, Bibi Ka Maqbara, Moti Masjid etc.

- Mughal architecture

Timurid and Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture.

- Akbar

Shah Jahan had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar, although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism, and Aurangzeb took the change still further.

- Aurangzeb

Catherine Asher terms his architectural period as an "Islamization" of Mughal architecture.

- Aurangzeb

Historian Mubarak Ali, while studying the image of Akbar in Pakistani textbooks, observes that Akbar "is conveniently ignored and not mentioned in any school textbook from class one to matriculation", as opposed to the omnipresence of emperor Aurangzeb.

- Akbar
The Taj Mahal at Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India is the most famous example of Mughal Architecture and one of India's most recognisable landmarks in general,

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar.

This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent.

There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

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The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

This nomination led to a succession crisis among his three sons, after which Shah Jahan's third son Aurangzeb ((r.

His reign is known for doing away with the liberal policies initiated by Akbar.

He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture.