A report on HumayunAkbarMughal emperors and Babur

Portrait of Humayun
Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
Akbar as a boy
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Babur Family Tree
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
17th-century portrait of Babur
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar Shah II and his four sons
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
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Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Babur crossing the Indus River
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Babur and his heir Humayun
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
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Copper coin of Humayun
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
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Tomb entrance view
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad (6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun;, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

- Humayun

Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (25 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar the Great, and also as Akbar I , was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

- Akbar

Like his father, Babur, he lost his empire early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory.

- Humayun

Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India.

- Akbar

Their founder Babur, a Timurid prince from the Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), was a direct descendant of Timur (generally known in western nations as Tamerlane) and also affiliated with Genghis Khan through Timur's marriage to a Genghisid princess.

- Mughal emperors

Akbar, for instance, was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput.

- Mughal emperors

Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.

- Humayun

Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza.

- Babur

The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven into exile in Persia by rebels.

- Mughal emperors

He wrote the Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic; it was translated into Persian during the reign (1556–1605) of his grandson, the Emperor Akbar.

- Babur

This was a far cry from the political settlements of his grandfather, Babur, and father, Humayun, both of whom had done little to indicate that they were anything but transient rulers.

- Akbar

Humayun (b. 1508; d. 1556) — with Maham Begum — succeeded Babur as the second Mughal Emperor

- Babur
Portrait of Humayun

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Overall

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India.

The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar.

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.

The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun (reigned 1530–1556), who was forced into exile in Persia by rebels.

The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.

Bairam Khan

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The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.
Bairam Khan is assassinated by an Afghan at Patan, 1561, Akbarnama

Muhammad Bairam Khan (18 January 150131 January 1561), commonly known as Bairam Khan or Bayram Khan was an important military commander, and later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.

Bairam Khan's father, Seyfali Beg Baharlu, and grandfather, Janali Beg Baharlu, had been part of Babur's service.