A report on Mughal EmpireAkbarMughal emperors and Babur

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Akbar as a boy
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Babur Family Tree
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
17th-century portrait of Babur
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar Shah II and his four sons
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Shah Alam II on horseback
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
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Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Babur crossing the Indus River
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Babur and his heir Humayun
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
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Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
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Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
The remnants of the empire in 1751
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (25 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar the Great, and also as Akbar I , was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

- Akbar

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

- Mughal emperors

Babur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Mīrzā Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

- Babur

The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India.

- Mughal Empire

A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include much of the Indian subcontinent.

- Akbar

The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar.

- Mughal Empire

Their founder Babur, a Timurid prince from the Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), was a direct descendant of Timur (generally known in western nations as Tamerlane) and also affiliated with Genghis Khan through Timur's marriage to a Genghisid princess.

- Mughal emperors

Akbar, for instance, was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput.

- Mughal emperors

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.

- Mughal Empire

He wrote the Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic; it was translated into Persian during the reign (1556–1605) of his grandson, the Emperor Akbar.

- Babur

This was a far cry from the political settlements of his grandfather, Babur, and father, Humayun, both of whom had done little to indicate that they were anything but transient rulers.

- Akbar

Humayun (b. 1508; d. 1556) — with Maham Begum — succeeded Babur as the second Mughal Emperor

- Babur
The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

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Portrait of Humayun

Humayun

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Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad (6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun;, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

Like his father, Babur, he lost his empire early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory.

Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.

The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.

Bairam Khan

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The submission of Bairam Khan, c. 1560.
Bairam Khan is assassinated by an Afghan at Patan, 1561, Akbarnama

Muhammad Bairam Khan (18 January 150131 January 1561), commonly known as Bairam Khan or Bayram Khan was an important military commander, and later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.

Bairam Khan's father, Seyfali Beg Baharlu, and grandfather, Janali Beg Baharlu, had been part of Babur's service.

Kabul

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Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Kushan Empire
Buddha statue at the museum in Kabul, early 1st millennium
Map showing names of the regions during the 7th century.
Humayun with his father Babur, emperors of the Mughal Empire
Old painting showing the Great Wall of Kabul
Shujah Shah Durrani, the last Durrani King, sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar
Chihil Sutun Palace (also known as "Hendaki"), one of numerous palaces built by the Emir in the 19th century
Etching of Kabul by an Italian artist, 1885
Dilkusha Palace, built in European style in the 1900s
The river bank in the center of Kabul in the 1960s
People and traffic in a part of Kabul, 1976
Center of Kabul in 1979; the Pul-e Khishti bridge crosses the Kabul River to the old city in the south bank
Taj Beg Palace in 1987, the Soviet Army headquarters during the Soviet–Afghan War
Kabul's Jada-e Maiwand in 1993, showing destruction caused by the civil war.
Modern high-rises built in the 2010s
Night scene in Kabul in 2016 looking northeast, with Koh-e 'Aliabad on the left and Koh-e Asamai on the right
Qargha dam and lake
A view of some of the mountains that surround Kabul
Location of Kabul Municipality within Kabul Province
Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur
Houses built on mountains
Afghan girls in Kabul in 2012
Ghazi Stadium
Arg, the Presidential Palace in Kabul
Marketplace in central Kabul
Inside an antiquity shop in Kabul's famous Chicken Street (Kochi Murgha)
Studio of Radio Kabul in the 1950s
The Kabul Bird Market (Ka Foroshi)
National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Archives
Bibi Mahro Park
Italian baroque style of Shah Do Shamshira
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani (early 19th century rebuilt)
Flightline at Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul International Airport), 2012
Traffic in Kabul city center in 2013
A Toyota Corolla (E100) at a security checkpoint in 2010
Kabul Medical University
Kabul Education University of Rabbani
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital
16th-century mosque inside the Gardens of Babur
The Taq-e Zafar in Paghman
The Minaret of Knowledge and Ignorance,<ref>{{lang-prs|منار علم و جهل}}</ref> built in the 1920s on a hill in Deh Mazang, commemorating king Amanullah's victory over the Mullah-e Lang in the Khost rebellion
Mausoleum of emir Abdur Rahman Khan, Zarnegar Park
Minaret of the Unknown Corps, memorial of the 1880 Battle of Maiwand
Buddhist stupa of Guldara
Royal Mausoleum at Maranjan hill
The Tang-e Gharu canyon east of Kabul
Traditional hill dwellings
"Old Mikroyan", 1960s built
Ministry of Finance and Khyber Restaurant (1966)
Pamir Cinema building (Agricultural Development Bank)
thumb|Pashtany Bank and the brutalist Kabul Tower
Andarabi Road dwellings on the riverbank
Apartments built in the 2000s with contemporary Afghanese style
Kabul city announced open calls through the Kabul municipality’s HP and its Facebook page, to participate in town meeting and planning process
Kabul mayor Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy speaking with league management during the inauguration ceremony of first ever internet-based solid waste discussion league in 2021
A memorandum of understanding signed by Kabul City mayor Ahmad Zaki Sarfaraz and Nagoya Institute of Technology executive director in 2019

In the 16th century, Kabul served as an initial summer capital of the Mughal Empire, during which time it increasingly prospered and was of significance to the empire.

In 1504, the city fell to Babur from the north and made into his headquarters, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire.

Though Mughal power became centred within the Indian subcontinent, Kabul retained importance as a frontier city for the empire; Abul Fazl, Emperor Akbar's chronicler, described it as one of the two gates to Hindustan (the other being Kandahar).

Under later Mughal Emperors, Kabul became neglected.