Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith

al-Mundhir IIIal-MundhirMundhir III
Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as (Flavios) Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581.wikipedia
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Maurice (emperor)

MauriceEmperor MauriceMaurikios
In 580 or 581, Mundhir participated in an unsuccessful campaign against the Persian capital, Ctesiphon, alongside the Byzantine general (and future emperor) Maurice.
The following year an ambitious campaign by Maurice, supported by Ghassanid forces under al-Mundhir III, targeted Ctesiphon, the Sassanid capital.

Al-Nu'man VI ibn al-Mundhir

al-Nu'man VIal-Nu'man
His arrest provoked an uprising among the Ghassanids under Mundhir's son al-Nu'man VI.
The eldest son of al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith, he rose in revolt with his tribe after his father was treacherously arrested by the Byzantines in 581.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

Byzantine–Sassanid WarByzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591ongoing war
But the letter fell into Mundhir's hands, who then severed his relations with the Empire and refused to commit his forces during the war with Persia that began in 572.
565-578) had ordered the assassination of the Ghassanid king al-Mundhir III; as a result of the unsuccessful attempt on his life, al-Mundhir severed his alliance with the Byzantines, leaving their desert frontier exposed.

Al-Harith ibn Jabalah

Al-Harith Val-HarithAl-Harith ibn Jabalah al-Ghassani
A son of Al-Harith ibn Jabalah, he succeeded his father both in the kingship over his tribe and as the chief of the Byzantine Empire's Arab clients and allies in the East, with the rank of patricius. Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe and supreme phylarch of the Arab foederati in the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.
When al-Harith died in 569 during a supposed earthquake, he was succeeded by his son al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith ( Flávios Alamúndaros in Byzantine sources).

Ghassanids

GhassanidGhassanBanu Ghassan
Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as (Flavios) Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581. Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe and supreme phylarch of the Arab foederati in the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

Justinian (general)

JustinianJustinianus
As the Byzantines relied upon the Ghassanids to cover the approaches to Syria, Mundhir's withdrawal left a gap in the Byzantine southern flank, which persisted for three years until 575 when Mundhir returned to the Byzantine allegiance through the mediation of the general Justinian, who met Mundhir at Sergiopolis.
In this role, he set about training the numerous fresh troops raised by the Empire, and effected a reconciliation with the Ghassanid ruler al-Mundhir, restoring thus the traditional Byzantine alliance with his people.

Paul the Black

Paul IIPaul II the Black of AlexandriaPatriarch Paul II of Antioch
It was a goal towards which Mundhir had long striven, as when he intervened in the quarrel between Jacob Baradaeus and Paul the Black, the Monophysite patriarch of Antioch.
Paul later escaped Constantinople and fled to the court of Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith, King of the Ghassanids.

Qabus ibn al-Mundhir

Qabus
Soon after Harith's death, Ghassanid territory was attacked by Qabus ibn al-Mundhir, the new Lakhmid ruler, who sought to take advantage of the situation.
554–569). Not much is known of his reign except that he suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the rival Byzantine-sponsored Ghassanid tribe under Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith in 570.

Huwwarin

HawarinHawwarin
Magnus was probably a Byzantine, hailing from Huwwarin (Evaria).
In 581 Magnus invited the Ghassanid phylarch ("king") al-Mundhir III to the consecration of the newly constructed church in Huwwarin before seizing him on behalf of the emperor.

Jacob Baradaeus

JacobiteJacobitesJacob Baradeus
It was a goal towards which Mundhir had long striven, as when he intervened in the quarrel between Jacob Baradaeus and Paul the Black, the Monophysite patriarch of Antioch.
King Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith, Al-Harith's successor, and Paul attempted to discuss the conflict with Jacob, however, he refused to seek another compromise.

Sergius and Bacchus

Saints Sergius and BacchusSaint SergiusSergius
Sergiopolis (modern Rusafa) was a site of particular significance due to the popularity of the cult of Saint Sergius among the Arabs, and was also a focus of later Umayyad building activity.
The original shrine was replaced with a sturdier stone structure in 518; this new site was patronized by important political figures including Roman emperor Justinian I, emperor Khosrow II of the Sassanid Empire, and al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith, ruler of the Ghassanids.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as (Flavios) Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
A son of Al-Harith ibn Jabalah, he succeeded his father both in the kingship over his tribe and as the chief of the Byzantine Empire's Arab clients and allies in the East, with the rank of patricius. Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe and supreme phylarch of the Arab foederati in the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

Patrician (ancient Rome)

patricianpatrikiospatricians
A son of Al-Harith ibn Jabalah, he succeeded his father both in the kingship over his tribe and as the chief of the Byzantine Empire's Arab clients and allies in the East, with the rank of patricius. It appears that Mundhir inherited his father's Byzantine titles one at a time, as they were not hereditary: the rank of patricius, the honorific appellation paneuphemos (most honorable) and the prestigious honorific gentilicum "Flavius", borne by the Byzantine emperors and consuls.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Despite his victories over the rival Persian-backed Lakhmids, throughout Mundhir's reign his relations with Byzantium were lukewarm due to his staunch Monophysitism.

Lakhmids

LakhmidLakhmLakhmid Arabs
Despite his victories over the rival Persian-backed Lakhmids, throughout Mundhir's reign his relations with Byzantium were lukewarm due to his staunch Monophysitism.

List of Byzantine emperors

Byzantine EmperorEmperorByzantine emperors
Relations were restored in 575 and Mundhir secured from the Byzantine emperor both recognition of his royal status and a pledge of tolerance towards the Monophysite Church.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
In 580 or 581, Mundhir participated in an unsuccessful campaign against the Persian capital, Ctesiphon, alongside the Byzantine general (and future emperor) Maurice.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
Byzantine agents captured Mundhir, who was brought to Constantinople but never faced trial.

Sicily

SicilianSiciliaSicilians
When Maurice ascended the throne in 582, Mundhir was exiled to Sicily although, according to one source, he was allowed to return to his homeland after Maurice's overthrow in 602.

Phylarch

client king
Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe and supreme phylarch of the Arab foederati in the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

Foederati

foedusfoederatusfederate
Mundhir was the son of al-Harith ibn Jabalah, ruler of the Ghassanid tribe and supreme phylarch of the Arab foederati in the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

Justinian I

JustinianEmperor JustinianJustinian the Great
Harith had been raised to the kingship and to the position of supreme phylarch by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (r.

Roman naming conventions

nomenfiliationgentilicum
It appears that Mundhir inherited his father's Byzantine titles one at a time, as they were not hereditary: the rank of patricius, the honorific appellation paneuphemos (most honorable) and the prestigious honorific gentilicum "Flavius", borne by the Byzantine emperors and consuls.

Flavia (gens)

FlaviusFlaviaFlavian
It appears that Mundhir inherited his father's Byzantine titles one at a time, as they were not hereditary: the rank of patricius, the honorific appellation paneuphemos (most honorable) and the prestigious honorific gentilicum "Flavius", borne by the Byzantine emperors and consuls.