Al-Zahrawi

Abu al-Qasim al-ZahrawiAbulcasisAlbucasisAbu al-QasimAbu Al-ZahrawiAbū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-ZahrāwīAz-ZahrāwīZahrawi
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.wikipedia
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Al-Andalus

AndalusianIslamic SpainAl Andalus
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus. Al-Zahrawi was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II.
Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry (Geber), astronomy (Arzachel), surgery (Abulcasis), pharmacology (Avenzoar), agronomy (Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī), and other fields.

Surgeon

surgeonsDoctorGeneral Surgeon
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus. He is considered as the greatest surgeon of the Middle Ages, and has been described as the father of surgery.
After the eventual decline of the Sushruta School of Medicine in India, surgery was largely ignored until the Islamic Golden Age surgeon Al-Zahrawi (936-1013), re-established surgery as an effective medical practice.

Father of surgery

father of modern surgery
He is considered as the greatest surgeon of the Middle Ages, and has been described as the father of surgery.
The Arab physician Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (936-1013) wrote Al-Tasrif (The Method of Medicine), a 30-part medical encyclopedia in Arabic.

Ectopic pregnancy

ectopic pregnanciesectopictubal pregnancy
He was the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia, as well as the first physician to describe an abdominal pregnancy; a sub type of ectopic pregnancy which in those days was a fatal affliction.
The first known description of an ectopic pregnancy is by Al-Zahrawi in the 11th century.

Neurosurgery

neurosurgeonbrain surgeryneurosurgical
Al-Zahrawi also pioneered neurosurgery and neurological diagnosis.
During the Middle Ages in Al-Andalus from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache.

Al-Hakam II

al-Ḥakam IIal-HakamAl-Hakem II
Al-Zahrawi was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II.
The famous physician, scientist, and surgeon Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) was also active in Al-Hakam's court during his reign.

Cauterization

electrocauterycauterizecautery
Al-Zahrawi specialized in curing disease by cauterization. Al-Zahrawi introduced over 200 surgical instruments, which include, among others, different kinds of scalpels, retractors, curettes, pincers, specula, and also instruments designed for his favoured techniques of cauterization and ligature.
In the Arab world, scholars Al-Zahrawi and Avicenna wrote about techniques and instruments used for cauterization.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Al-Zahrawi, regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages.

Al-Humaydī

Al-Humaydī al-Azdial-Ḥumaydī
But we have the first detailed biography of al-Zahrawī from al-Ḥumaydī's Jadhwat al-Muqtabis (On Andalusian Savants), completed six decades after al-Zahrawi's death.
The book is considered the earliest primary source to mention Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, and an important primary source for the life of Ziryab.

Haemophilia

hemophiliahemophiliachaemophiliac
He was the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia, as well as the first physician to describe an abdominal pregnancy; a sub type of ectopic pregnancy which in those days was a fatal affliction.
The first medical professional to describe the disease was Abulcasis.

Al-Tasrif

Kitab al-TasrifKitab al-TaṣrifAl-Tasrif li-man 'ajaza 'an al-ta'lif
Al-Zahrawi's principal work is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, dentistry, childbirth, and pathology. In the 14th century, the French surgeon Guy de Chauliac quoted al-Tasrif over 200 times.
The Kitab at-Tasrif (Arabic: كتاب التصريف لمن عجز عن التأليف) (The Method of Medicine) is a 30-volume Arabic encyclopedia on medicine and surgery, written near the year 1000 by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).

Tracheotomy

tracheostomytracheotomiestracheostomy tube
While al-Zahrawi never performed the surgical procedure of tracheotomy, he did treat a slave girl who had cut her own throat in a suicide attempt.
In 1000, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (936–1013), an Arab who lived in Arabic Spain, published the 30-volume Kitab al-Tasrif, the first illustrated work on surgery.

Abdominal pregnancy

He was the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia, as well as the first physician to describe an abdominal pregnancy; a sub type of ectopic pregnancy which in those days was a fatal affliction.
Al-Zahrawi (936–1013) is credited with first recognizing abdominal pregnancy which was apparently unknown to Greek and Roman physicians and was not mentioned in the writings of Hippocrates; Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (1460–1530) the Italian physician is credited with the first detailed anatomical description of abdominal pregnancy.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, dentistry, childbirth, and pathology.
Largely based upon Paul of Aegina's Pragmateia, the writings of Abulcasis (Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi), an Andalusian-Arab physician and scientist who practiced in the Zahra suburb of Córdoba, were influential.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, dentistry, childbirth, and pathology.
Others include Abulcasis, Avenzoar, Ibn al-Nafis, and Averroes.

Lithotomy

lithotomistkidney stone removallithotomies
His technique was important for the development of lithotomy, and an improvement over the existing techniques in Europe which caused severe pain for the patient, and came with high death rates.
Albucasis follows Paulus almost word for word but then describes a different sort of knife, that is "sharp on two sides" (Spinks and Lewis say it is difficult to reconcile the drawing of the knife to the procedure).

Dentistry

dentaldental caredentist
Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, dentistry, childbirth, and pathology.
During the Islamic Golden Age Dentistry was discussed in several famous books of medicine such as The Canon in medicine written by Avicenna and Al-Tasreef by Al-Zahrawi who is considered the greatest surgeon of the Middle ages, Avicenna said that jaw fracture should be reduced according to the occlusal guidance of the teeth; this principle is still valid in modern times.

Pharmacy

pharmaciespharmaceutical sciencesdrugstore
In pharmacy and pharmacology, Al-Zahrawi pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936–1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation.

Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalyhydrocephalicobstructive hydrocephalus
He is known to have performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache.
The first clinical description of an operative procedure for hydrocephalus appears in the Al-Tasrif (1,000 AD) by the Arab surgeon Abulcasis, who clearly described the evacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children.

Córdoba, Spain

CórdobaCordobaCórdoba, Andalusia
Al-Zahrawi was born in the city of Azahara, 8 kilometers northwest of Cordoba, Andalusia.
During these Muslim periods, Córdoba was transformed into a world leading center of education and learning, producing notable figures such as Averroes, Ibn Hazm, and Al-Zahrawi, and by the 10th century it had grown to be the largest city in western Europe.

Avicenna

Ibn SinaIbn SīnāAbu Ali ibn Sina
It remained the primary source on surgery in Europe for the next 500 years, and as the historian of medicine, Arturo Castiglioni, has put it: al-Zahrawi's treatise "in surgery held the same authority as did the Canon of Avicenna in medicine".
Along with Rhazes, Abulcasis, Ibn al-Nafis, and al-Ibadi, Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine.

Retractor (medical)

retractorretractorsretracted
Al-Zahrawi introduced over 200 surgical instruments, which include, among others, different kinds of scalpels, retractors, curettes, pincers, specula, and also instruments designed for his favoured techniques of cauterization and ligature.
In 1000 CE Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, also known as Albucasis or Abulcasis, described a variety of surgical instruments including retractors in his famous text Al-Tasrif.

Science in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic scienceIslamic sciencesscience
al-Zahrawi (936–1013) was a surgeon whose most important surviving work is referred to as al-Tasrif (Medical Knowledge).

Guy de Chauliac

Gui de Chauliac
In the 14th century, the French surgeon Guy de Chauliac quoted al-Tasrif over 200 times.
He claimed that surgery began with Hippocrates and Galen, and was developed in the Arab world by Haly Abbas, Albucasis, and Al-Razi.