Alamgir II

Imad-ul-Mulk, a persecutor of the Mughal imperial family, holds a banquet.
Patthargarh fort (literally meaning: "stone stronghold") outside Najibabad, built by Najib ad-Dawlah in 1755, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II.
Mughal artillerymen at Plassey during the Carnatic Wars.
Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760, the Peshwa discussed abolishing the Mughal Empire and placing Vishwasrao on the imperial throne in Delhi.
the Mughal Ambassador
A portrait of Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau.
Silver rupee issued in the name of Alamgir II, date of AH 1172 (c. 1758).
Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Timur Shah Durrani.

The fifteenth Mughal Emperor of India, who reigned from 3 June 1754 to 29 November 1759.

- Alamgir II

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Shah Alam II in his old life in (1790s – 1800s) era Portation.

Shah Alam II

Shah Alam II in his old life in (1790s – 1800s) era Portation.
Mughal era illustration of Pir Ghazi of Bengal, during the 18th century.
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company, after the arrival of Suffren.
A silver Rupee struck in the name of Shah Alam
Shah Alam II blinded by Ghulam Qadir
The tomb of Shah Alam II, in Mehrauli, Delhi.
Imad-ul-Mulk was the regent imposed by the Maratha Confederacy in 1757, who assassinated Alamgir II and prominent members of the imperial family, within the Maratha controlled city of Delhi; Shah Alam II managed to escape to safety with the Nawab of Awadh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/biography/Alamgir-II|title=ʿĀlamgīr II - Mughal emperor|access-date=27 July 2018}}</ref>
Mir Jafar, his son Miran and Ramnarian refused to submit to Shah Alam II, who initiated the Bengal War causing the eventual intervention of the British East India Company.
Shuja-ud-Daula served as the leading Nawab Vizier of the Mughal Empire, during the Third Battle of Panipat and the Battle of Buxar
Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim defected to Shah Alam II.
Mirza Najaf Khan, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army.
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
A member of the British East India Company enjoying a Durbar.
The Royal Chamber in the Public Audience Hall in the Middle of Yazdah Darreh, with the Ruler, Alam Bahador Badshah, and the Great Commanders, a page from the Lady Coote Album.
A Firman issued by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, dated 1776.
The newly reestablished Mughal Army during the reign of Shah Alam II.
A Mughal infantryman.
Large Mughal Army encampments during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
Pierre André de Suffren ally of Hyder Ali and also Shah Alam II.
Hyder Ali was bestowed the title Shams ul-Mulk and Amir ud-Daula by Shah Alam II, his pro-French policies were a continuation of the Mughal Empire's policies during the Seven Years' War.
Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).
Map of India in 1795, 11 years before the death of Shah Alam II

Shah Alam II (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), also known by his birth name Ali Gohar (or Ali Gauhar), was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.

Portrait of Imad-ul-Mulk

Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung III

The grand vizier of the Mughal Empire allied with the Maratha Empire, who were often described as a de facto ruler of the Mughal Empire.

The grand vizier of the Mughal Empire allied with the Maratha Empire, who were often described as a de facto ruler of the Mughal Empire.

Portrait of Imad-ul-Mulk
Imad ul-Mulk holds a banquet

A controversial figure, Imad is well known for imprisoning and blinding emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur, for assassinating emperor Alamgir II and torturing their family members including future emperor Shah Alam II.

Jahandar Shah

The ninth Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713.

The ninth Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713.

Lal Kunwar
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah
Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah.
Silver Rupee of Abu al-Fateh couplet, Khujista Bunyaad, AH1124 Ry.Ahd
Silver Rupee of Sahab Qiran couplet, Itawa, AH1124 Ry.Ahd
Copper paisa of 20.21 grams from Surat mint
Copper paisa of 13.85 grams from Surat mint

He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as an emperor between 1754 and 1759.

Durrani Empire

Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, as seen from the Nakkara Khauna
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the Mughal Empire to Shah Alam II.
The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar was one of the royal residences of the Durrani kings.
The main street in the bazaar at Kabul, 1842 James Atkinson watercolour painting.

In early 1757, he sacked Delhi, but permitted Mughal emperor Alamgir II to remain in nominal control as long as he acknowledged Afghan suzerainty over the regions south of the Indus River.

Raghunath Rao

The 11th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774.

The 11th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774.

Raghunathrao imprisoned Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur and made Alamgir II his puppet monarch.

Timur Shah Durrani

The second ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, from November 1772 until his death in 1793.

The second ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, from November 1772 until his death in 1793.

Portrait of Timur Shah Durrani
Coin of Timur Shah Durrani as Nizam of the Punjab, minted in Lahore, dated 1757/8
Representation of a Safavid Qizilbash
Bala Hissar fort, Peshawar, in 1910
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, brother-in-law to Timur Shah.
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani in Kabul

Timur Shah saw a quick rise to power by marrying the daughter of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II in 1757.

Kabul

Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

Kushan Empire
Buddha statue at the museum in Kabul, early 1st millennium
Map showing names of the regions during the 7th century.
Humayun with his father Babur, emperors of the Mughal Empire
Old painting showing the Great Wall of Kabul
Shujah Shah Durrani, the last Durrani King, sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar
Chihil Sutun Palace (also known as "Hendaki"), one of numerous palaces built by the Emir in the 19th century
Etching of Kabul by an Italian artist, 1885
Dilkusha Palace, built in European style in the 1900s
The river bank in the center of Kabul in the 1960s
People and traffic in a part of Kabul, 1976
Center of Kabul in 1979; the Pul-e Khishti bridge crosses the Kabul River to the old city in the south bank
Taj Beg Palace in 1987, the Soviet Army headquarters during the Soviet–Afghan War
Kabul's Jada-e Maiwand in 1993, showing destruction caused by the civil war.
Modern high-rises built in the 2010s
Night scene in Kabul in 2016 looking northeast, with Koh-e 'Aliabad on the left and Koh-e Asamai on the right
Qargha dam and lake
A view of some of the mountains that surround Kabul
Location of Kabul Municipality within Kabul Province
Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur
Houses built on mountains
Afghan girls in Kabul in 2012
Ghazi Stadium
Arg, the Presidential Palace in Kabul
Marketplace in central Kabul
Inside an antiquity shop in Kabul's famous Chicken Street (Kochi Murgha)
Studio of Radio Kabul in the 1950s
The Kabul Bird Market (Ka Foroshi)
National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Archives
Bibi Mahro Park
Italian baroque style of Shah Do Shamshira
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani (early 19th century rebuilt)
Flightline at Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul International Airport), 2012
Traffic in Kabul city center in 2013
A Toyota Corolla (E100) at a security checkpoint in 2010
Kabul Medical University
Kabul Education University of Rabbani
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital
16th-century mosque inside the Gardens of Babur
The Taq-e Zafar in Paghman
The Minaret of Knowledge and Ignorance,<ref>{{lang-prs|منار علم و جهل}}</ref> built in the 1920s on a hill in Deh Mazang, commemorating king Amanullah's victory over the Mullah-e Lang in the Khost rebellion
Mausoleum of emir Abdur Rahman Khan, Zarnegar Park
Minaret of the Unknown Corps, memorial of the 1880 Battle of Maiwand
Buddhist stupa of Guldara
Royal Mausoleum at Maranjan hill
The Tang-e Gharu canyon east of Kabul
Traditional hill dwellings
"Old Mikroyan", 1960s built
Ministry of Finance and Khyber Restaurant (1966)
Pamir Cinema building (Agricultural Development Bank)
thumb|Pashtany Bank and the brutalist Kabul Tower
Andarabi Road dwellings on the riverbank
Apartments built in the 2000s with contemporary Afghanese style
Kabul city announced open calls through the Kabul municipality’s HP and its Facebook page, to participate in town meeting and planning process
Kabul mayor Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy speaking with league management during the inauguration ceremony of first ever internet-based solid waste discussion league in 2021
A memorandum of understanding signed by Kabul City mayor Ahmad Zaki Sarfaraz and Nagoya Institute of Technology executive director in 2019

For the first time in its history, Kabul served as a mint centre, producing gold and silver Mughal coins up to the reign of Alamgir II.

Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, oil on canvas (Francis Hayman, c. 1762)

Battle of Plassey

Decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive.

Decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive.

Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, oil on canvas (Francis Hayman, c. 1762)
European settlements in India from 1501 to 1739.
The Mughal Empire's Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan adopted strict attitudes towards European mercantile companies in Bengal.
Robert Clive (1773), by Nathaniel Dance-Holland.
Clive's solitary reflection before the Battle of Plassey
The Nawab's artillery on movable platform. A large stage, raised six feet from the ground, carrying besides the cannon, all the ammunition belonging to it, and the gunners themselves who managed the cannon, on the stage itself. These machines were drawn by 40 or 50 yoke of white oxen, of the largest size, bred in the country of Purnea; and behind each cannon walked an elephant, trained to assist at difficult tugs, by shoving with his forehead against the hinder part of the carriage.
Soldier of the 39th Regiment (c. 1742)
A plan of the Battle of Plassey, fought 23 June 1757 by Col. Robert Clive, against the Nawab of Bengal. Depiction of the battlefield, with explanations of troop movements.
9 (Plassey) Battery Royal Artillery of the British military.
English guns at the Battle of Plassey, 23 June 1757
Obelisks of Mirmadan, Nabe Singh Hajari and Bahadur Khan near the Palashi battlefield
Plassey Monument in the battlefield
Mir Madan's Tomb in Faridpur, Murshidabad

Furthermore, Siraj-ud-Daula believed that the British East India Company did not receive any permission from the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II to fortify their positions in the territories of the Nawab of Bengal.

Suraj Mal

Jat ruler of Bharatpur in present-day state of Rajasthan.

Jat ruler of Bharatpur in present-day state of Rajasthan.

300px
Suraj Mal's Cenotaph at Govardhan, a photo by William Henry Baker, c.1860.
Lohaghar Fort built by Suraj Mal
Kusum Sarovar

Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and his rebellious courtier Siraj ud-Daulah were having a factional feud.

Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau

The Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785.

The Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785.

In the year 1755, De Bussy received letter from the newly ordained Mughal Emperor Alamgir II requesting French assistance to put down the Maratha Confederacy.