Alaric I

AlaricAlaric I king of the VisigothsAlaric the GreatAlaric the VisigothAlarichAlaricusConquests of Alaric IKing AlaricVisigothic Invasion of Greece
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.wikipedia
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Sack of Rome (410)

Sack of Romesacked Romesack Rome
He is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire.
The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.

Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
In 394, he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus.
(According to Gregory of Tours, Aegidius held the kingship of the Franks for 8 years while Childeric was in exile.) This new type of kingship, perhaps inspired by Alaric I, represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier.

Gainas

GainnasGaïnas
Alaric began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas, and later joined the Roman army.
Under the command of Gainas, a man of "no lineage", was the young Alaric of the Balti dynasty.

Battle of Verona (402)

Battle of VeronaVerona
A second invasion that same year also ended in defeat at the Battle of Verona, although he did force the Roman Senate to pay a large subsidy to the Visigoths.
The Battle of Verona was fought in June 402 by Alaric's Visigoths, and a Western Roman force led by Stilicho.

Stilicho

Flavius StilichoStiliconeTicinum massacre
He first appeared as leader of a mixed band of Goths and allied peoples, who invaded Thrace in 391 but were stopped by the half-Vandal Roman General Stilicho. In 401 Alaric invaded Italy, but was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia (modern Pollenza) on April6, 402.
One of his comrades during the campaign was the Visigothic warlord Alaric, who commanded a substantial number of Gothic auxiliaries.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

decline of the Roman Empirefall of the Roman Empirefall of Rome
He is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire.
In 391 Alaric, a Gothic leader, rebelled against Roman control.

Goths

GothicgothDeewan Lal Chand
He first appeared as leader of a mixed band of Goths and allied peoples, who invaded Thrace in 391 but were stopped by the half-Vandal Roman General Stilicho. Born on Peuce Island at the mouth of the Danube Delta in present-day Romania, Alaric belonged to the noble Balti dynasty of the Tervingian Goths.
They were held in check but in led by Alaric I sacked Rome in 410.

Piraeus

PiraefsPiraeus, GreecePireás
He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus (the port of Athens) and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos and Sparta.
The reconstruction of Piraeus went on during the period of Alexander the Great, but this revival of the town was quashed by Roman Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who captured and totally destroyed Piraeus in 86 BC. The destruction was completed in 395 AD by the Goths under Alaric I.

Rothesteus

Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
According to Christian Settipani, he was the father (or paternal grandfather) of Alaric I, the first king of the Visigoths, and the father of Atharid, who played a leading role in the killing of the Christian martyr Sabbas the Goth.

Radagaisus

Radagaisus, King of the Goths
During Radagaisus' Italian invasion in 406, he remained idle in Illyria.
These Goths later joined Alaric I in his conquest of Rome in 410.

Theodosius I

TheodosiusTheodosius the GreatTheodosian
In 394, he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus.
In the last years of Theodosius's reign, one of the emerging leaders of the Goths, named Alaric, participated in Theodosius's campaign against Eugenius in 394, only to resume his rebellious behavior against Theodosius's son and eastern successor, Arcadius, shortly after Theodosius' death.

Foederati

foedusfederatesfoederatus
Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military.
Alaric began his career leading a band of Gothic foederati.

Battle of Pollentia

Pollentia
In 401 Alaric invaded Italy, but was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia (modern Pollenza) on April6, 402.
Meanwhile, about the time of Rufinus' fall, the Visigoths, exited by Alaric, (who would later be crowned king of the Visigoths,) broke into rebellion, renouncing their titles as Romans and foederati.

Honorius (emperor)

HonoriusEmperor HonoriusFlavius Honorius
In 408, Western Emperor Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, in response to rumors that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Theodosius died in 395, leaving the Empire to be divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion of the Empire.
At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths under King Alaric I entered Italy in 401 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications.

Balt dynasty

BalthiBalthi DynastyBalti
Born on Peuce Island at the mouth of the Danube Delta in present-day Romania, Alaric belonged to the noble Balti dynasty of the Tervingian Goths.
The Visigoths as a nation were formed under the rule of Alaric I, the first named Balt, only in 395.

Magister militum

magistri militummagister peditummagister militum per Orientem
Nonetheless, the Eastern emperor Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum ("master of the soldiers") in Illyricum.
395-? Alaric I

Arbogast (general)

ArbogastArbogastesFlavius Arbogastes
In 394, he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus.
Shortly after these events, Emperor Theodosius I, perhaps realizing the situation between East and West was becoming problematic at the least, began to prepare his foederati, including Germanic troops, those from the Visigothic treaty in 382 led by Alaric, as well as a contingency of Alans and Huns, for war against Arbogast and Eugenius in 394.

Aquileia

*AquilaeAquilegia
Moving swiftly along Roman roads, Alaric sacked the cities of Aquileia and Cremona and ravaged the lands along the Adriatic Sea.
At the end of the 4th century, Ausonius enumerated Aquileia as the ninth among the great cities of the world, placing Rome, Constantinople, Carthage, Antioch, Alexandria, Trier, Mediolanum, and Capua before it. However, such prominence made it a target and Alaric and the Visigoths besieged it in 401, during which time some of its residents fled to the nearby lagoons.

Verona

VeroneseVerona, ItalyFlower Gloves Verona
After another defeat before Verona, Alaric left Italy, probably in 403.
Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Theodosius died in 395, leaving the Empire to be divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion of the Empire.
Rufinus and Stilicho were rivals, and their disagreements would be exploited by the Gothic leader Alaric I who again rebelled in 408 following the massacre by Roman legions of thousands of barbarian families who were trying to assimilate into the Roman empire.

Priscus Attalus

AtalusAttalus
Alaric lifted his blockade after proclaiming Attalus Western Emperor.
His two reigns lasted only a few months; the first one ended when Alaric believed it was hampering his negotiations with Honorius, and the second came to an end after he was abandoned by the Visigoths and eventually captured by Honorius' men.

Peloponnese

PeloponnesusPeloponnesianPeloponnesians
Then he penetrated into the Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities—Corinth, Argos, and Sparta—selling many of their inhabitants into slavery.
The devastation of Alaric's raid in 396–397 led to the construction of the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth.

Sarus the Goth

Sarus
These negotiations might have succeeded had it not been for the influence of another Goth, Sarus, an Amali, and therefore hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house.
He was known for his hostility to the prominent Gothic brothers-in-law Alaric I and Ataulf, and was the brother of Sigeric, who ruled the Goths briefly in 415.

Ravenna

Ravenna, ItalySavio(RA)
It caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, and necessitated the withdrawal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Britain.
However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, and went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage.