Albanian language

AlbanianAlbAlbanian-speakingAlbanian spellingAlb.languageOld AlbaniansqStandard AlbanianAlbanian-language
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.wikipedia
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Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët, ) are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian ancestry, culture, history and language.

Languages of Europe

European languagesLatin EuropeEuropean language
With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.
7 million), Albanian (c.

Albanian dialects

Albanian language dialectsdialectDialectology
The two main Albanian dialects, Gheg and Tosk which are primarily distinguished by phonological differences, are mutually intelligible, with Gheg spoken in the north and Tosk spoken in the south of the Shkumbin river.
The Albanian language is composed of many dialects, divided into two major groups: Gheg and Tosk.

Arvanites

ArvaniteArvanite GreekAlbanian
Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus, Western Macedonia and Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë) as well as in Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine.
Arvanites (Αρβανίτες, Arvanítes; Arvanitika: Arbëreshë / Αρbε̰ρεσ̈ε̰ or Arbërorë) are a bilingual population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, an Albanian language variety, along with Greek.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.
He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
The words Shqipëri and Shqiptar are attested from 14th century onward, but it was only at the end of 17th and beginning of the early 18th centuries that the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria and Arbëreshë amongst Albanian speakers.

Albanians of Romania

AlbanianAlbaniansAlbanian-Romanian
Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus, Western Macedonia and Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë) as well as in Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine.
The Albanians (Shqiptarë in Albanian, Albanezi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania.

Thracian language

ThracianThraco-PhrygianEzerovo ring
Alternative hypotheses hold that Albanian may have descended from Thracian or Daco-Moesian, other ancient languages spoken farther east than Illyrian.
Below is a table showing both words cited as being Thracian in classical sources, and lexical elements that have been extracted by paleolinguists from Thracian anthroponyms, toponyms, etc. In this table the closest cognates are shown, with an emphasis on cognates in Bulgarian, Albanian, Baltic, Slavic, Greek, and substratum and/or old-layer words in the Eastern Romance languages: Romanian, Aromanian, et cetera.

Kosovo

Republic of KosovoKosovarKosovan
It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
The entire region that today corresponds to the territory is commonly referred to in English simply as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova or Kosovë (definite form, ) or Kosovë ("indefinite" form, ).

Paleo-Balkan languages

Paleo-BalkanPaleo-Balkan languagePaleo-Balkanic
Albanian is considered to be the descendant of one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity.
Due to the processes of Hellenization, Romanization and Slavicization in the region, the only modern descendants of Paleo-Balkan languages are Modern Greek—which is descended from Ancient Greek—and Albanian—which evolved from either Illyrian, Thracian, Dacian or another similar tongue.

Albanians in Turkey

AlbaniansTurkeyTurkish-Albanian
Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus, Western Macedonia and Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë) as well as in Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine.
In the census of 1965, 12,832 Turkish citizens spoke Albanian as first language, which is only 0.04% of the population.

Kosovo War

Kosovowar in KosovoKosovo Conflict
These are mainly refugees from Kosovo who migrated during the Kosovo War.
Tito conceded some of the students' demands—in particular, representative powers for Albanians in both the Serbian and Yugoslav state bodies and better recognition of the Albanian language.

Arbëreshë people

ArbëreshëArbëreshArbereshe
Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus, Western Macedonia and Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë) as well as in Romania, Turkey, and Ukraine.
This Albanian dialect is of particular interest to students of the modern Albanian language as it retains speech sounds, morphosyntactic and vocabulary elements of the language spoken in pre-Ottoman Albania.

Albanians in Switzerland

SwitzerlandAlbanianAlbanian community
Approximately 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Germany, Switzerland and Austria.
They mostly trace their origins to Kosovo, North Macedonia and to a lesser extent to Albania and other Albanian-speaking territories in the Balkan Peninsula.

Albanians in Germany

GermanyGerman–AlbanianAlbanian
Approximately 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Germany, Switzerland and Austria.
They mostly trace their origins to Albania, Kosovo and to a lesser extent to North Macedonia and other Albanian-speaking territories in the Balkan Peninsula.

Minority language

minority languagesminoritylinguistic minorities
It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.

Tosk Albanian

ToskTosk Albanian dialectTosk Albanians
The two main Albanian dialects, Gheg and Tosk which are primarily distinguished by phonological differences, are mutually intelligible, with Gheg spoken in the north and Tosk spoken in the south of the Shkumbin river. Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëresh.
Tosk Albanian (toskë or toskërisht) is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.
Further concessions were made to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo in response to unrest, including the creation of the University of Pristina as an Albanian language institution.

Albanian diaspora

DiasporaAlbanian communities1991 Albanian Exodus to Italy
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.
The Albanian language is the second largest immigrant language spoken in Switzerland, following Serbo-Croatian.

Cham Albanian dialect

ChamlanguageÇam
Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëresh.
The Cham Albanian dialect (Çamërisht, Dialekti çam) is the dialect of the Albanian language spoken by the Cham Albanians, an ethnic Albanian minority in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece.

Culture of Albania

Albanian culturecultureAlbania
Approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry, language and culture.
The double-headed eagle is the national and ethnic symbol of all Albanian-speaking people.

Arvanitika

ArvaniticArvaniteaat
Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëresh. Two varieties of the Tosk dialect, Arvanitika in Greece and Arbëresh in southern Italy, preserved archaic elements of the language.
Arvanitika (Arvanitika: αρbε̰ρίσ̈τ, arbërisht; αρβανίτικα, arvanítika), also known as Arvanitic, is the variety of Albanian traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece.

Lab Albanian dialect

LabLabërishtLab dialect
Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëresh.
The Lab Albanian dialect (Labërishtja or Dialekti lab) is a Tosk Albanian dialect associated with the wider definition of the ethnographic region of Labëria, spoken by Lab Albanians.

Albanian alphabet

AlbanianArvanitic alphabetAlbanian inscriptions
Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets (Elbasan, Vithkuqi, Todhri, Veso Bey, Jan Vellara and others, see original Albanian alphabets).
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.

Upper Reka dialect

Albanian speakingUpper RekaUpper Reka Albanian dialect
One fairly divergent dialect is the Upper Reka dialect, which is however classified as Central Gheg.
The Upper Reka Albanian dialect is a member of the wider northern Albanian Gheg dialect subgroup of the Albanian language spoken by northern Albanians.