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Theory of relativity

relativityrelativisticrelativity theory
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

Mass–energy equivalence

mass-energy equivalencemass-energyE=mc²
He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc^2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".
In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the principle that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula:

General relativity

general theory of relativitygeneral relativity theoryrelativity
He subsequently realized that the principle of relativity could be extended to gravitational fields, and published a paper on general relativity in 1916 introducing his theory of gravitation.
General relativity (GR), also known as the general theory of relativity (GTR), is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

Annus Mirabilis papers

Annus Mirabilis'' papersOn the Electrodynamics of Moving BodiesMiracle Year
In 1905, called his annus mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers, which attracted the attention of the academic world.
The Annus mirabilis papers (from Latin annus mīrābilis, "extraordinary year") are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905.

Photoelectric effect

He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.
Because a low-frequency beam at a high intensity could not build up the energy required to produce photoelectrons like it would have if light's energy were continuous like a wave, Einstein proposed that a beam of light is not a wave propagating through space, but rather a collection of discrete wave packets (photons).


photonslight quantaincident photon
He also investigated the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation, the basis of laser, which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.
The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light.

List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein

more than 300 scientific papersSelected Papers
He published more than 300 scientific papers and more than 150 non-scientific works.
Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century, best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity.

Einstein–Szilárd letter

Einstein-Szilard letterEinstein–Szilard lettera letter
On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting FDR to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.

Institute for Advanced Study

Institute for Advanced StudiesInstitute for Advanced Study, PrincetonIAS
He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.
It is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States.


Ulm, GermanySöflingenUlm-Donau
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879.
Internationally, Ulm is primarily known for having the church with the tallest steeple in the world (161.53 m), the Gothic minster (Ulm Minster, German: Ulmer Münster), and as the birthplace of Albert Einstein.

Brownian motion

BrownianBrownian movementBrownian particle
He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules.
In 1905, almost eighty years later, theoretical physicist Albert Einstein published [[Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen|a paper]] where he modeled the motion of the pollen as being moved by individual water molecules, making one of his first major scientific contributions.

ETH Zurich

ETH ZürichSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyETH
He received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in Zürich in 1900.
As of November 2019, 21 Nobel laureates, 2 Fields Medalists, 2 Pritzker Prize winners, and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein.

Introduction to quantum mechanics

quantum theoryquantum mechanicsBasic concepts of quantum mechanics
He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.
In 1905, Albert Einstein took an extra step.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Engineer DistrictThe Manhattan ProjectManhattan District
This eventually led to the Manhattan Project.
They had it signed by Albert Einstein and delivered to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

University of Bern

University of BerneBernUniversität Bern
He taught theoretical physics for one year (1908/09) at the University of Bern, for two years (1909-11) at the University of Zurich, and after one year at the Charles University in Prague he returned to his alma mater ETH Zurich between 1912 and 1914, before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
In 1908, Albert Einstein taught the first of three semesters of theoretical physics.

Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul WignerWignerEugene P. Wigner
Eugene Wigner compared him to his contemporaries, writing that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jancsi von Neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original".
Wigner participated in a meeting with Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein that resulted in the Einstein-Szilard letter, which prompted President Franklin D. Roosevelt to initiate the Manhattan Project to develop atomic bombs.

Russell–Einstein Manifesto

Russell-Einstein ManifestoBertrand Russell peace petition
He signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons.
The signatories included eleven pre-eminent intellectuals and scientists, including Albert Einstein, who signed it just days before his death on 18 April 1955.

Hans Albert Einstein

Hans EinsteinHans AlbertHans
In May 1904, their son Hans Albert Einstein was born in Bern, Switzerland.
Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić.

Einstein family

Hermann EinsteinEduard EinsteinLieserl
His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch.
The Einstein family is the family of the renowned physicist Albert Einstein (1879–1955).

Mileva Marić

Mileva MaricMileva EinsteinMileva
Einstein's future wife, a 20-year-old Serbian woman Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that year.
Mileva Marić (Serbian Cyrillic: Милева Марић; December 19, 1875 – August 4, 1948), sometimes called Mileva Marić-Einstein or Mileva Marić-Ajnštajn, was a Serbian physicist and mathematician and the first wife of Albert Einstein from 1903-19.

Einstein's thought experiments

Einstein and the quantumEinstein's thought experimentthought experiment
Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical–mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.
A hallmark of Albert Einstein's career was his use of visualized thought experiments (Gedankenexperiment ) as a fundamental tool for understanding physical issues and for elucidating his concepts to others.

Elsa Einstein

ElsaElsa LowenthalElsa Löwenthal
Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal in 1919, after having a relationship with her since 1912.
Elsa Einstein (18 January 1876 – 20 December 1936) was the second wife and cousin of Albert Einstein.

Marcel Grossmann

Grossmann MarcellGrossmann, Marcel
Among Einstein's well-known friends were Michele Besso, Paul Ehrenfest, Marcel Grossmann, János Plesch, Daniel Q. Posin, Maurice Solovine, and Stephen Wise.
Marcel Grossmann (April 9, 1878 – September 7, 1936) was a mathematician and a friend and classmate of Albert Einstein.

Aether theories

aetheretheraether theorist
During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field".
Albert Einstein in 1894 or 1895: "The velocity of a wave is proportional to the square root of the elastic forces which cause [its] propagation, and inversely proportional to the mass of the aether moved by these forces."

Electromagnetic field

electromagnetic fieldselectromagneticEMF
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field.
Charged particles can move at relativistic speeds nearing field propagation speeds, but, as Einstein showed, this requires enormous field energies, which are not present in our everyday experiences with electricity, magnetism, matter, and time and space.