A report on Alberta and Rocky Mountains

The summits of the Teton Range in Wyoming
Mount Robson in British Columbia
A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features
Glaciers, such as Jackson Glacier in Glacier National Park, Montana, as shown here, have dramatically shaped the Rocky Mountains.
Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.
Tilted slabs of sedimentary rock in Roxborough State Park near Denver
Köppen climate types in Alberta
Great Sand Dunes of Colorado
Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.
Bighorn sheep (such as this lamb in Alberta) have declined dramatically since European-American settlement of the mountains
The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.
Mesa Verde ruins in Colorado
A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.
Cherokee Trail near Fort Collins, Colorado, from a sketch taken June 7, 1859
Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.
Sir Alexander MacKenzie in 1800
Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907
Aspen, Colorado silver mining in 1898
Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820
The Saltair Pavilion on the Great Salt Lake in 1900
Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.
Drilling rig for natural gas near the Wind River Range
Population density of Alberta
Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park
Petroleum resources in Alberta
Icefields Parkway
Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced in Alberta.
A canola field in Alberta
The Three Sisters at Bow Valley Provincial Park in Canmore
Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos
Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)
The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.
The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.
Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.
Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.
A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station
Highway 1 (the Trans-Canada Highway) at Alberta Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail).

The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains.

- Alberta

Of the 50 most prominent summits of the Rocky Mountains, 12 are located in British Columbia, 12 in Montana, ten in Alberta, eight in Colorado, four in Wyoming, three in Utah, three in Idaho, and one in New Mexico.

- Rocky Mountains

18 related topics with Alpha


British Columbia

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Westernmost province of Canada.

Westernmost province of Canada.

British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.
Outline map of British Columbia with significant cities and towns
Köppen climate types in British Columbia
The Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver
Shuswap Lake as seen from Sorrento
The Okanagan region has a climate suitable to vineyards.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies
Odaray Mountain and Lake O'Hara
Yoho National Park
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Provincial Park
Humpback whale in Sooke coast
'Namgis Thunderbird Transformation Mask, 19th century
Fort San Miguel at Nootka in 1793
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century
Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, 1851
Cattle near the Maas by Dutch painter Aelbert Cuyp. Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Cuyp.
Victoria, 1864
Lord Strathcona drives the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, November 7, 1885. Completion of the transcontinental railroad was a condition of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
Memorial to the "last spike" in Craigellachie
Statue of Queen Victoria outside the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Internment camp for Japanese Canadians during World War II
W.A.C. Bennett, 25th premier of British Columbia
British Columbia's pavilion for Expo 86, Vancouver
The Coquihalla Highway was one of the legacies of the Expo 86 world's fair, though creation of the toll highway sparked controversy. Tolling was removed in 2008.
The cauldron of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver
Population density map of British Columbia, with regional district borders shown
The Vancouver skyline
Canada Place in Downtown Vancouver
Entrance to Telus Garden
The British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Coat of arms' escutcheon of the current lieutenant governor
John Horgan is premier, BC's head of government.
The meeting chamber of the Legislative Assembly
The flower of the Pacific dogwood is often associated with British Columbia.
The Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 between Richmond and Delta
British Columbia Highway 1 near Brentwood, Burnaby
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge
Spirit of Vancouver Island S-class ferry
Ice sailing in Whistler
Shoreline Trail in Victoria
Hatley Castle on the campus of Royal Roads University
Aerial view of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby
Quest University Canada Academic Building, aerial view

Situated between the Pacific Ocean and the continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, the province has a diverse geography, replete with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains.

It borders the Canadian province of Alberta to the east and the Canadian territories of Yukon and the Northwest Territories to the north.


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State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Early Indian treaty territories in Montana
Assiniboine family, Montana, 1890–91
Montana Territory in 1865
Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon met again on the Big Hole Battlefield site in 1889.
Buffalo Soldiers, Ft. Keogh, Montana, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Mennonite family in Montana, c. 1937
Map of Montana
Relief map of Montana
Saint Mary Lake in Glacier National Park
Belly River in Waterton Lakes National Park
Missouri Breaks region in central Montana
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Quake Lake was created by a landslide during the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake.
Temperature and precipitation for Montana's capital city, Helena
Köppen climate types of Montana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Clark Fork River, Missoula, in autumn
Missoula, the second-largest city in Montana
Montana population density map
Population of Montana 1870–2018
Indian reservations in Montana. Borders are not exact.
Montana ranks 2nd nationally in craft breweries per capita.
First Interstate Center, in downtown Billings, is the tallest building in Montana.
Dancers at Crow Fair in 1941
Montana State Bobcats football at Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman
Lone Mountain at Big Sky Ski Resort
The Big Sky Resort
The Palisades area on the north end of the ski area at Red Lodge Mountain Resort
Guided snowmobile tours in Yellowstone Park
Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, Montana
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; Wyoming to the south; and by the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north.

In all, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains.

The Continental Divide in North America in red, among other major hydrological divides

Continental Divide of the Americas

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Principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

Principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

The Continental Divide in North America in red, among other major hydrological divides
The Continental Divide in Central America and South America
The Continental Divide in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of north central Colorado, taken from the International Space Station on October 28, 2008
Grays Peak, here in mid-June 2007. At 4352 m, it is the highest point of the Continental Divide in North America.
Historically, the Continental Divide was the line between British and US land possession in the disputed Oregon Country.
The Parting of the Waters in the Teton Wilderness. One fork flows to the Pacific Ocean while the other flows to the Atlantic.
The Continental Divide Trail often remains above the treeline and on the Divide, providing unobstructed views along its route.

Although there are many other hydrological divides in the Americas, the Continental Divide is by far the most prominent of these because it tends to follow a line of high peaks along the main ranges of the Rocky Mountains and Andes, at a generally much higher elevation than the other hydrological divisions.

From there the Divide traverses the McGregor Plateau to the spine of the Rockies, following the crest of the Canadian Rockies southeast to the 120th meridian west, from there forming the boundary between southern British Columbia and southern Alberta.

Grizzly bear

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Population or subspecies of the brown bear inhabiting North America.

Population or subspecies of the brown bear inhabiting North America.

Grizzly pair at the Cleveland Zoo
Grizzly claws are longer than an American black bear's and adapted for digging
A grizzly roams in a wooded area near Jasper Townsite in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada
Alaskan grizzly in Katmai National Park with partially eaten salmon – the heads, skin and subcutaneous tissue are eaten to obtain the most fat
Family of bears in Glacier National Park, Montana, United States
Sow with two cubs in Kananaskis Country
Mother grizzly with a cub
Grizzly fishing for salmon at Brooks Falls, Alaska
White-grey cub in Western Canada
Possible grizzly-black bear hybrid in Yukon Territory, Canada
Gorgonia, a Native American (Mescalero Apache) man. He holds a bear pelt and wears moccasin boots, a breechcloth, kilt, and vest
Hugh Glass being attacked by a grizzly bear, from an early newspaper illustration of unknown origin
Bear catches a salmon at Brooks Falls
A grizzly in Denali National Park
A sign at a BC Park warns campers to hang food, garbage, and toiletries out of reach of bears, or to use a secure bear cache
Drum or barrel trap, used to safely relocate bears, adjacent to a building in Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming, United States
Taxidermied specimens at the American Museum of Natural History

In Canada, there are approximately 25,000 grizzly bears occupying British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the northern part of Manitoba.

Coastal Canadian and Alaskan grizzlies are larger than those that reside in the Rocky Mountains.

The Great Plains near a farming community in central Kansas

Great Plains

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Broad expanse of flatland in North America.

Broad expanse of flatland in North America.

The Great Plains near a farming community in central Kansas
Farmland in Sioux and Lyon Counties, Iowa (2013)
Dust cloud moving across the Llano Estacado near Ransom Canyon, Texas
Herd of Plains Bison of various ages resting in Elk Island Park, Alberta
The Great Plains as seen in Minnesota's upland prairie at Glacial Lakes State Park
The High Plains of Kansas, in the Smoky Hills near Nicodemus
Short-grass prairie near the front range of the Rockies in Colorado
View of Lake Lawtonka and wind turbines from Mount Scott, Oklahoma
A tornado touching down in Park County, Colorado, July 23, 2018
American bison (Bison bison), Wichita Mountain Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma
Excavation of a fossil Daemonelix burrow at Agate Fossil Beds National Monument.
Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska
Buffalo hunt under the wolf-skin mask, George Catlin, 1832–33.
This painting by Alfred Jacob Miller is a portrayal of Plains Indians chasing buffalo over a small cliff. The Walters Art Museum.
Great Plains in North Dakota c. undefined 2007, where communities began settling in the 1870s.
Fort William, the first Fort Laramie, as it looked prior to 1840. Painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller
Grange in session, 1873
Withdrawal rates from the Ogallala Aquifer
Wind farm in the plains of West Texas
Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) National Black-footed Ferret Conservation Center, Colorado
Swift fox (Vulpes velox), Colorado
Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on a lek in the Red Hills of Kansas
Great Plains ratsnake (Pantherophis emoryi), Missouri
Great Plains toad (Anaxyrus cognatus)
Homesteaders in central Nebraska in 1886
The Great Plains before the native grasses were plowed under, Haskell County, Kansas, 1897, showing a man near a buffalo wallow
Cattle herd and cowboy, c. 1902
Wheat field on Dutch flats near Mitchell, Nebraska, 1910

It is located west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland.

The southern portions of the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

American black bear

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Medium-sized bear endemic to North America.

Medium-sized bear endemic to North America.

American black bear head, Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
A possible American black bear-grizzly bear hybrid in the Yukon Territory, Canada
An American black bear at Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming
American black bears can be distinguished from brown bears by their smaller size, their less concave skull profiles, their shorter claws and the lack of a shoulder hump.
A cinnamon-colored American black bear in Yellowstone National Park, the U.S.
A white-colored Kermode bear (U. a. kermodei)
A female and cubs hibernating
Harry Colebourn and Winnipeg, the bear from which Winnie-the-Pooh got his name
A tame American black bear on a leash
The incidence of bear attacks in parks and campgrounds declined after the introduction of bear-resistant garbage cans and other reforms.

American black bears currently inhabit much of their original Canadian range, though they seldom occur in the southern farmlands of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba; they have been extirpated on Prince Edward Island since 1937.

The spruce-fir forest dominates much of the range of the American black bear in the Rockies.

Mackenzie River

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River in the Canadian boreal forest.

River in the Canadian boreal forest.

Dene fishing camp on the Mackenzie River, north of the Arctic Circle
Satellite view of the lower Mackenzie River
Mackenzie at Tsiigehtchic
Lakes and black spruce forest in the Mackenzie Delta
The Mackenzie River enters the Beaufort Sea, July 2017. About 7 percent of the fresh water that flows into the Arctic Ocean each year comes out the Mackenzie and its delta, and much of that comes in large pulses in June and July after the freshet—when inland ice and snow melts and floods the river.
Steamboat Wrigley on the Mackenzie River, c. 1901
Mackenzie River near its head at Fort Providence
A frozen Mackenzie River at Fort Good Hope, March 2007
Mackenzie River at Fort Simpson, at the confluence of the Liard River

Through its many tributaries, the Mackenzie River basin covers portions of five Canadian provinces and territories – British Columbia (BC), Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon, and Northwest Territories.

Together, the Peace and Athabasca rivers drain a significant portion of the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains and the central Alberta prairie.

Ringrose Peak, Lake O'Hara, British Columbia

Canadian Rockies

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Ringrose Peak, Lake O'Hara, British Columbia
View of Lake Louise in Alberta
Mount Robson in British Columbia
Sodalite-aegirine-albite pegmatite specimen, Ice River Complex, an intrusion partly in Yoho National Park. Field of view ≈7.1 cm across.
Peyto Lake, Banff National Park

The Canadian Rockies (Rocheuses canadiennes) or Canadian Rocky Mountains, comprising both the Alberta Rockies and the B.C. Rockies, is the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.

The Canadian Rockies, being the northern segment of this chain, is thus defined as comprising the central-eastern section of the North American Cordillera, between the Prairies of Alberta and the Liard Plain of northeastern British Columbia to the east and the Interior Mountains/Plateau and Columbia Mountains to the west.

Six chiefs of the Blackfoot Confederacy in 1859

Blackfoot Confederacy

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Historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: the Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Blood ("Many Chiefs"), and two sections of the Peigan or Piikani ("Splotchy Robe") – the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni).

Historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: the Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Blood ("Many Chiefs"), and two sections of the Peigan or Piikani ("Splotchy Robe") – the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni).

Six chiefs of the Blackfoot Confederacy in 1859
Six chiefs of the Blackfoot Confederacy in 1859
Six chiefs of the Blackfoot Confederacy in 1859
Chief Aatsista-Mahkan, c.1905.
Blackfoot teepees, Glacier National Park, 1933
Kainai (Blood) women with travois.
Bison hunters with wolf skin disguises.
Depiction of Bison being driven over a "buffalo jump".
Mounted Blackfoot warrior on horse painted from life by Karl Bodmer.
Three mounted Piegan chiefs on the prairie. Photographed by Edward S. Curtis.
Blackfoot warriors at Fort MacLeod, 1907
When Blackfoot and Sioux Meet by western artist Charles Marion Russell.
The Death of Omoxesisixany or Big Snake by Paul Kane, depicting a battle between a Blackfoot and Plains Cree warrior on horseback.
Blackfeet Burning Crow Buffalo Range by Charles Marion Russell.
Buffalo Bull's Back Fat, Head Chief, of the Blood Tribe by George Catlin.
Mehkskeme-Sukahs, Blackfoot chief (c. 1840).
Single-Handed, Charles Marion Russell 1912. The painting shows a North-West Mounted Police officer attempting to arrest a defiant warrior at a Blood camp, probably in Alberta or Saskatchewan.
Dog Child (Winnipeg Jack), a Blackfoot scout and interpreter for the NWMP.
Colorized photograph of chief Mountain Chief
Frances Densmore recording chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1916.
Scalp dance, Blackfoot Indians, 1907
Women of the Blood Nation in battle dress, 1907
Blackfoot making sweet grass medicine for a ceremony.
Blackfoot man with braided sweet grass ropes
Horned bonnet with ermine skin.
Head Carry, a Piegan man wearing a split horn headdress. Photographed by Edward S. Curtis, 1900.
Headdress Case, Blackfoot (Native American), late 19th century, Brooklyn Museum
A Siksika Blackfeet Medicine Man, painted by George Catlin.
Earl Old Person, honorary chief of the Blackfoot.
Blackfoot gathering, Alberta. 1973
Chief Mountain is sacred to the Blackfoot. The mountain marks the boundary between the Blackfoot reservation in Montana and Glacier National Park.
Chief Crowfoot.

Today, three Blackfoot First Nation band governments (the Siksika, Kainai, and Piikani Nations) reside in the Canadian province of Alberta, while the Blackfeet Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe of Southern Piikani in Montana, United States.

The Confederacy had a territory that stretched from the North Saskatchewan River (called Ponoká'sisaahta) along what is now Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada, to the Yellowstone River (called Otahkoiitahtayi) of Montana in the United States, and from the Rocky Mountains (called Miistakistsi) and along the South Saskatchewan River to the present Alberta-Saskatchewan border (called Kaayihkimikoyi), east past the Cypress Hills.

Bighorn sheep

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Species of sheep native to North America.

Species of sheep native to North America.

Female Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis) in Yellowstone National Park
A juvenile (lamb)
Bighorn rams
A bighorn ram following a juvenile ewe
Bighorn sheep
A petroglyph of a caravan of bighorn sheep near Moab, Utah, United States, a common theme in glyphs from the desert southwest

Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis) – occupying the U.S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains, and the Northwestern United States.

The Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta and the state animal of Colorado and as such is incorporated into the symbol for the Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife.