Albinism

albinoalbinisticalbinosalbinism, ocularAlbinism in biologyAlbinoidismAlbinoidshypomelanisticOculocutaneous albinism type 2Oculocutaneous albinism type 3
Albinism is the "congenital absence of any pigmentation or coloration in a person, animal or plant, resulting in white hair, feathers, scales and skin and pink eyes in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish and invertebrates as well." Varied use and interpretation of the terms mean that written reports of albinistic animals can be difficult to verify.wikipedia
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Iris (anatomy)

irisirisesirides
Albino animals have characteristic pink or red eyes because the lack of pigment in the iris allows the blood vessels of the retina to be visible.
Occasionally, the color of the iris is due to a lack of pigmentation, as in the pinkish-white of oculo-cutaneous albinism, or to obscuration of its pigment by blood vessels, as in the red of an abnormally vascularised iris.

BALB/c

BALB/c miceBALB/cByBALB/cByJ
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets.
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived.

Albino Squirrel Preservation Society

The novelty of albino animals has occasionally led to their protection by groups such as the Albino Squirrel Preservation Society.
The Albino Squirrel Preservation Society (ASPS) is an international collegiate organization dedicated to "fostering compassion and goodwill" toward albino squirrels.

Melanin

eumelaninpheomelaninphaeomelanin
Depending on how it is created, melanin comes in two colour ranges, eumelanin (producing dark browns and blacks) and pheomelanin (producing light reddish tans and blondes).
Some humans have very little or no melanin synthesis in their bodies, a condition known as albinism.

Tyrosinase

TYRmonophenol monooxygenaseEC 1.14.18.1
The production of melanin occurs in melanocytes in a complex process involving the enzyme tyrosinase.
A mutation in the tyrosinase gene resulting in impaired tyrosinase production leads to type I oculocutaneous albinism, a hereditary disorder that affects one in every 20,000 people.

Laboratory rat

ratslab ratWistar rat
Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits and ferrets.
Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties.

Chromatophore

melanophorechromatophoresmelanophores
Many animal body-parts, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur, hair, scales and cuticles, contain pigments in specialized cells called chromatophores.
Whereas all chromatophores contain pigments or reflecting structures (except when there has been a mutation, as in albinism), not all pigment-containing cells are chromatophores.

Jungle cat

Felis chausjungle catsSwamp cat
Albinism was observed in jungle cats (Felis chaus) and jackals (Canis aureus) along the coastline of the southern Western Ghats (Kerala and Kanyakumari coast, India).
The jungle cat has a uniformly sandy, reddish-brown or grey fur without spots; melanistic and albino individuals are also known.

Melanocyte

melanocytesmelanogenesismelanocytic
The production of melanin occurs in melanocytes in a complex process involving the enzyme tyrosinase. Mammals and birds, in contrast, have a class of cells called melanocytes for colouration.
People with oculocutaneous albinism typically have a very low level of melanin production.

Eye color

BrownBlueGreen
In all albino mammals studied, the eye color is green, blue or red due to absence of eumelanin in the iris, and the centre of the retina is under-developed with a deficit of rod cells; the central ganglion cell density is approximately 25% below normal.
The gene OCA2, when in a variant form, causes the pink eye color and hypopigmentation common in human albinism.

Snowflake (gorilla)

SnowflakeCopito de NieveFloquet de Neu
Famous albino mammals include "Migaloo", a humpback whale living off the coast of Australia; Pinky, a bottlenose dolphin living in and around in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana; "Carolina Snowball", a popular albino bottlenose dolphin displayed at the Miami Seaquarium in the early 1960s; "Snowflake", a Barcelona Zoo gorilla, and "Mahpiya Ska", (Sioux for "White Cloud"), a buffalo in Jamestown, North Dakota.
Snowflake (Floquet de Neu, Copito de Nieve; c. 1964 – 2003) was an albino western lowland gorilla.

Melanosome

melanosomes
Melanosomes block harmful electromagnetic radiation from the sun while allowing beneficial frequencies to enter the body.
Dysfunction or absence of the melanin-synthesising enzymes (in conditions such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome) leads to various patterns of albinism.

Echidna

echidnasTachyglossidaespiny anteater
Albinism can also occur in marsupials and monotremes as well such as echidnas, kangaroos, koalas, possums, wallabies and wombats as well.
There have been several reports of albino echidnas, their eyes pink and their spines white.

Tiger

tigersPanthera tigristigress
A 2012 survey of the literature reported that in India, there were several records of albino mammals including the tiger, lesser mouse-tailed bat, chital, common palm civet, Northern palm squirrel, five-striped palm squirrel and wild boar.
It is not an albino, as the black pigments are scarcely affected.

Biological pigment

pigmentpigmentspigmentation
Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that have a colour resulting from selective colour absorption.

Pinky (dolphin)

Pinky
Famous albino mammals include "Migaloo", a humpback whale living off the coast of Australia; Pinky, a bottlenose dolphin living in and around in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana; "Carolina Snowball", a popular albino bottlenose dolphin displayed at the Miami Seaquarium in the early 1960s; "Snowflake", a Barcelona Zoo gorilla, and "Mahpiya Ska", (Sioux for "White Cloud"), a buffalo in Jamestown, North Dakota.
Pinky is an albino bottlenose dolphin found in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana.

Mahpiya Ska

Famous albino mammals include "Migaloo", a humpback whale living off the coast of Australia; Pinky, a bottlenose dolphin living in and around in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana; "Carolina Snowball", a popular albino bottlenose dolphin displayed at the Miami Seaquarium in the early 1960s; "Snowflake", a Barcelona Zoo gorilla, and "Mahpiya Ska", (Sioux for "White Cloud"), a buffalo in Jamestown, North Dakota.
Mahpiya Ska (Sioux language) or White Cloud (July 10, 1996 - November 14, 2016) was an albino female buffalo primarily residing at the National Buffalo Museum located in Jamestown, North Dakota.

Sperm whale

sperm whalesspermPhyseter macrocephalus
The inspiration for Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick was a sperm whale known as Mocha Dick.
Albinos have been reported.

Mocha Dick

The inspiration for Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick was a sperm whale known as Mocha Dick.
Mocha Dick was an albino and partially inspired Herman Melville's 1851 novel Moby-Dick.

Mexican tetra

Astyanax mexicanusblind cave fishAstyanax argentatus
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice and rabbits), but populations of naturally occurring albino animals exist in the wild, e.g. Mexican cave tetra.
Its blind cave form, however, is notable for having no eyes or pigment; it has a pinkish-white color to its body (resembling an albino).

Leucism

leucisticall-white coatshypomelanistic
However, most of these animals are leucistic given that they have a general loss of pigmentation with some color tinges remaining on their bodies although looking at first like other albino creatures, thus creating the misconception that the reptiles are albino themselves when they are not.
Unlike albinism, it can cause a reduction in multiple types of pigment, not just melanin.

Wels catfish

Silurus glaniscatfishsheatfish
However, when tested, there was no differences in responses between wild-type and albinistic European wels catfish (Silurus glanis) and South American bronze catfish (Corydoras aeneus).
Albinistic specimens are known to exist and are caught occasionally.

Amelanism

amelanistic
They are actually amelanistic, not albino.
A similar condition, albinism, is a hereditary condition characterised in animals by the absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, feathers or cuticle.

Claude (alligator)

Claude
The California Academy of Science, in the Steinhart Aquarium, as of 2015, has on display an albino American alligator named "Claude".
Claude is an albino alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at the California Academy of Sciences.

Barcelona Zoo

city zooParque Zoológico de Barcelona
Famous albino mammals include "Migaloo", a humpback whale living off the coast of Australia; Pinky, a bottlenose dolphin living in and around in Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana; "Carolina Snowball", a popular albino bottlenose dolphin displayed at the Miami Seaquarium in the early 1960s; "Snowflake", a Barcelona Zoo gorilla, and "Mahpiya Ska", (Sioux for "White Cloud"), a buffalo in Jamestown, North Dakota.
The zoo used to be internationally known as the home of Snowflake, the only known albino gorilla, who died in 2003.