Alcohol (drug)

alcoholdrinkingdrinkEthanoldrinking alcohol alcoholalcoholic beveragesalcoholic drinkalcoholic drinksbooze
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).wikipedia
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Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
It is one of the oldest and most common recreational substances, causing the characteristic effects of alcohol intoxication ("drunkenness").
Recreational drugs include alcohol (as found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits); cannabis (legal federally in certain countries and statewide/province-wide in others) and hashish; nicotine (tobacco); caffeine (coffee, tea, and soft drinks); prescription drugs; and the controlled substances listed as illegal drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
Among other effects, alcohol produces a mood lift and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.
Some recreational drugs such as alcohol (also known as ethanol) induce anxiolysis initially; however, studies show that many of these drugs are anxiogenic.

Acetaldehyde

acetylaldehydeCH 3 CHOacetylaldehydes
Alcohol also has toxic and unpleasant actions in the body, many of which are mediated by its byproduct acetaldehyde.
It is also produced by the partial oxidation of ethanol by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and is a contributing cause of hangover after alcohol consumption.

Blood alcohol content

blood alcohol levelblood alcohol concentrationBAC
The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC); weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood.
Blood alcohol concentration is usually expressed as a percentage of ethanol in the blood in units of mass of alcohol per volume of blood or mass of alcohol per mass of blood, depending on the country.

Liquor

spiritsdistilled beveragespirit
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
As liquors contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled alcoholic drinks from non-distilled ones.

Alcohol and cancer

cancerrisk of cancerAlcohol
It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and increased risk of cancer.
3.6% of all cancer cases and 3.5% of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to consumption of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).

Alcohol flush reaction

flushed, red appearance in the facealcohol flushingapparent allergy to alcohol
Ethanol-containing beverages can cause alcohol flush reactions, exacerbations of rhinitis and, more seriously and commonly, bronchoconstriction in patients with a history of asthma, and in some cases, urticarial skin eruptions, and systemic dermatitis.
The reaction is the result of an accumulation of acetaldehyde, a metabolic byproduct of the catabolic metabolism of alcohol, and is caused by an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.

Beer

brewing industrybeersbrewing
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Beer contains ethanol, an alcohol, which has short and long-term effects on the user when consumed.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
Agonists/positive allosteric modulators: alcohol (ethanol), barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carisoprodol, chloral hydrate, etaqualone, etomidate, glutethimide, kava, methaqualone, muscimol, neuroactive steroids, z-drugs, propofol, skullcap, valerian, theanine, volatile and inhaled anaesthetics.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Short-term adverse effects include generalized impairment of neurocognitive function, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and hangover-like symptoms.
alcohol (being sick while being drunk or being sick the next morning, suffering from the after-effects, i.e., the hangover)

NMDA receptor

NMDAglycine siteNMDAR
Ethanol has specifically been found in functional assays to enhance or inhibit the activity of a variety of ion channels, including the GABA A receptor, the ionotropic glutamate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors, the glycine receptor, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor, voltage-gated calcium channels, and BK channels, among others.
The activity of the NMDA receptor is affected by many psychoactive drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), alcohol (ethanol) and dextromethorphan (DXM).

GABAA receptor

GABA A receptorGABA A GABA A receptors
Ethanol has specifically been found in functional assays to enhance or inhibit the activity of a variety of ion channels, including the GABA A receptor, the ionotropic glutamate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors, the glycine receptor, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor, voltage-gated calcium channels, and BK channels, among others.
These allosteric sites are the targets of various other drugs, including the benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids, barbiturates, alcohol (ethanol), inhaled anaesthetics, and picrotoxin, among others.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.
These costs arise from the direct adverse effects of drugs and associated healthcare costs (e.g., emergency medical services and outpatient and inpatient care), long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer from smoking tobacco products, liver cirrhosis and dementia from chronic alcohol consumption, and meth mouth from methamphetamine use), the loss of productivity and associated welfare costs, fatal and non-fatal accidents (e.g., traffic collisions), suicides, homicides, and incarceration, among others.

Sexual assault

sexually assaultedsexually assaultingsexually assault
Alcohol use is also related to various societal problems, including driving accidents and fatalities, accidental injuries, sexual assaults, domestic abuse, and violent crime.
In 2015, Texas A&M University professor Jason Lindo and his colleagues analyzed over two decades worth of FBI data, noting that reports of rape increased 15-57% around the times of major American Football games at Division 1 schools while attempting to find a link between campus rape and alcohol.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.

Alcohol

alcoholssecondary alcoholtertiary alcohol
Ethanol is a type of chemical compound known as an alcohol, and is the only type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages or is commonly used for recreational purposes; other alcohols such as methanol and isopropyl alcohol are toxic. The tertiary alcohol tert-amyl alcohol (TAA), also known as 2-methylbutan-2-ol (2M2B), has a history of use as a hypnotic and anesthetic, as do other tertiary alcohols such as methylpentynol, ethchlorvynol, and chloralodol.
The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages.

Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcohol
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

Date rape drug

date rape drugsdate-rape drugstupefying
It is the most commonly used date rape drug.
One of the most common types of DFSA are those in which a victim consumes a recreational drug such as alcohol that was administered surreptitiously.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
The tertiary alcohol tert-amyl alcohol (TAA), also known as 2-methylbutan-2-ol (2M2B), has a history of use as a hypnotic and anesthetic, as do other tertiary alcohols such as methylpentynol, ethchlorvynol, and chloralodol.
Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks; substance dependence is possible, and deaths from overdoses sometimes occur, especially in combination with alcohol and/or other depressants.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Among other effects, alcohol produces a mood lift and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.
Alcohol is a very prominent depressant.

Alcohol dependence

alcohol dependencyalcoholalcohol dependent
Alcohol abuse and dependence are major problems and many health problems as well as death can result from excessive alcohol use.
Alcohol dependence is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedating
Sedatives can be misused to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the classic and most common sedating drug).

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Among other effects, alcohol produces a mood lift and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.
Certain depressants can produce euphoria; some of the euphoriant drugs in this class include alcohol in moderate doses, γ-hydroxybutyric acid, and ketamine.