Alcohol (drug)

alcoholdrinkingdrinkdrinking alcoholEthanolEthanol (alcohol) alcoholaccessedalcoholic beveragesalcoholic drink
Alcohol, sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).wikipedia
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Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Alcohol, sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal active ingredient found in alcoholic drinks.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
It is one of the oldest and most common recreational substances, causing the characteristic effects of alcohol intoxication ("drunkenness").
Recreational drugs include alcohol (as found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits); cannabis (legal nationally in certain countries and state/province-wide or locally in others) and hashish; nicotine (tobacco); caffeine (coffee, tea, and soft drinks); prescription drugs; and the controlled substances listed as illegal drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations.

Anxiolytic

anxiolysisanti-anxietyanxiolytics
Among other effects, alcohol produces a mood lift and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.
Some recreational drugs such as alcohol induce anxiolysis initially; however, studies show that many of these drugs are anxiogenic.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Among other effects, alcohol produces a mood lift and euphoria, decreased anxiety, increased sociability, sedation, impairment of cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory function, and generalized depression of central nervous system function.
Alcohol is a very prominent depressant.

Acetaldehyde

ethanalCH 3 CHOacetylaldehyde
Alcohol also has toxic and unpleasant actions in the body, many of which are mediated by its byproduct acetaldehyde. Disulfiram inhibits the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which in turn results in buildup of acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite of ethanol with unpleasant effects.
It is also produced by the partial oxidation of ethanol by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and is a contributing cause of hangover after alcohol consumption.

Blood alcohol content

blood alcohol levelblood alcohol concentrationBAC
The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC); weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood.
Blood alcohol concentration is usually expressed as a percentage of ethanol in the blood in units of mass of alcohol per volume of blood or mass of alcohol per mass of blood, depending on the country.

Liquor

spiritsdistilled beveragespirit
Alcohol, sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
As liquors contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled alcoholic drinks from non-distilled ones.

List of countries with alcohol prohibition

Some countries countriesa number of Muslim countries
Currently, alcohol is illegal for sale and consumption in few mostly Middle Eastern countries.
The following countries have or had comprehensive prohibitions against alcohol.

Alcohol and cancer

cancerrisk of cancerAlcohol
It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and its consumption is the fifth leading cause of cancer.
3.6% of all cancer cases and 3.5% of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to consumption of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).

Alcohol flush reaction

flushed, red appearance in the faceflushingalcohol flushing
The reaction is the result of an accumulation of acetaldehyde, a metabolic byproduct of the catabolic metabolism of alcohol, and is caused by an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Alcohol withdrawal can cause confusion, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, fever, nausea, vomiting, autonomic dysfunction, seizures, and hallucinations.
Anxiety is also associated with drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety).

Peptic ulcer disease

peptic ulcerstomach ulcerulcer
However, in patients who have a peptic ulcer disease (PUD), this mucosal layer is broken down.
Treatment includes stopping smoking, stopping use of NSAIDs, stopping alcohol, and taking medications to decrease stomach acid.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.
Also, under legislation specifically about drugs, alcohol and nicotine are not usually included.

Beer

brewing industrybrewingbeers
Alcohol, sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Beer contains ethanol, an alcohol, which has short and long-term effects on the user when consumed.

NMDA receptor

NMDANMDARNMDA receptors
Ethanol has specifically been found in functional assays to enhance or inhibit the activity of a variety of ion channels, including the GABA A receptor, the ionotropic glutamate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors, the glycine receptor, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor, voltage-gated calcium channels, and BK channels, among others.
The activity of the NMDA receptor is affected by many psychoactive drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), alcohol (ethanol) and dextromethorphan (DXM).

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Alcohol withdrawal can cause confusion, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, fever, nausea, vomiting, autonomic dysfunction, seizures, and hallucinations. Short-term adverse effects include generalized impairment of neurocognitive function, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and hangover-like symptoms.

GABAA receptor

GABA A receptorGABA A GABA A receptors
Ethanol has specifically been found in functional assays to enhance or inhibit the activity of a variety of ion channels, including the GABA A receptor, the ionotropic glutamate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors, the glycine receptor, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor, voltage-gated calcium channels, and BK channels, among others.
These allosteric sites are the targets of various other drugs, including the benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids, barbiturates, alcohol (ethanol), inhaled anaesthetics, and picrotoxin, among others.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.
These costs arise from the direct adverse effects of drugs and associated healthcare costs (e.g., emergency medical services and outpatient and inpatient care), long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer from smoking tobacco products, liver cirrhosis and dementia from chronic alcohol consumption, and meth mouth from methamphetamine use), the loss of productivity and associated welfare costs, fatal and non-fatal accidents (e.g., traffic collisions), suicides, homicides, and incarceration, among others.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Alcohol, sometimes referred to by the chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive drug that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).

Cognitive deficit

cognitive impairmentcognitivecognitive impairments
Alcohol causes generalized central nervous system depression and associated cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory impairment.

Sexual assault

sexually assaultedsexually assaultingsexually assault
Alcohol use is also related to various societal problems, including driving accidents and fatalities, accidental injuries, sexual assaults, domestic abuse, and violent crime.
In 2015, Texas A&M University professor Jason Lindo and his colleagues analyzed over two decades worth of FBI data, noting that reports of rape increased 15-57% around the times of major American Football games at Division 1 schools while attempting to find a link between campus rape and alcohol.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.

Disulfiram

Antabusetetraethylthiuram disulfideN,N,N'N'''-Tetraethylthiuram disulfide
Disulfiram inhibits the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which in turn results in buildup of acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite of ethanol with unpleasant effects.
In medicine, the term "disulfiram effect" refers to an adverse effect of a particular medication in causing an unpleasant hypersensitivity to alcohol, similar to the effect caused by disulfiram administration.

Cannabis

marijuanahemppot
In combination with cannabis, ethanol increases plasma tetrahydrocannabinol levels, which suggests that ethanol may increase the absorption of tetrahydrocannabinol.
Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco.