Alcohol abuse

"The Drunkard’s Progress", 1846
A label on alcoholic drinks promoting zero alcohol during pregnancy
The United States Navy provides informative, in-depth training on alcohol and drug abuse prevention to sailors and supervisors.
Results of the ISCD 2010 study showing that alcohol has the highest economic cost to society of all drugs considered.
"After Whisky Driving Risky." Safety roadsign in Ladakh, India

Alcohol abuse encompasses a spectrum of unhealthy alcohol drinking behaviors, ranging from binge drinking to alcohol dependence, in extreme cases resulting in health problems for individuals and large scale social problems such as alcohol-related crimes.

- Alcohol abuse
"The Drunkard’s Progress", 1846

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A gross pathology specimen of liver metastases caused by pancreatic cancer

Liver disease

Any of many diseases of the liver.

Any of many diseases of the liver.

A gross pathology specimen of liver metastases caused by pancreatic cancer
Ursodeoxycholic acid
Ground glass hepatocytes
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Budd-chiari syndrome
Micrograph of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Diffuse cirrhosis
Macronodular cirrhosis
Nutmeg texture of congestive hepatopathy

Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to disorders caused by various drugs.

Providing oral explanation about a tree for another person; a communication method

Social skills

Any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.

Any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.

Providing oral explanation about a tree for another person; a communication method
Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School, New Zealand.

The social skills that are typically impaired by alcohol abuse, include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems, and theory of mind deficits.

A woman suffering from nausea and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol use.

Alcohol dependence

Previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also chemically known as ethanol).

Previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also chemically known as ethanol).

A woman suffering from nausea and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol use.
Women drinking during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
The effects of alcohol has on the body.
Hallucinations from Alcohol withdrawals.
Treatment and support
"The Drunkard’s Progress", 1846

In 2013, it was reclassified as alcohol use disorder in DSM-5, which combined alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse into this diagnosis.

1912 U.S. Happy New Year postcard

Binge drinking

Drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time, but definitions vary considerably.

Drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time, but definitions vary considerably.

1912 U.S. Happy New Year postcard
A young man lying comatose after a binge drinking session
William Hogarth, 1731
A drunken man, 1804
Binge drinking can prompt police action for public intoxication and disturbing the peace.

With alcohol abuse remaining highly stigmatized—particularly in the case of pregnant women—some advocate for treatment programs to focus on a non-judgmental stance, on personal empowerment, and on offering contraceptives to women engaging in sex, in order to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Brodmann areas, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25, 32, 44, 45, 46, and 47 are all in the prefrontal cortex

Prefrontal cortex

Cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

Cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

Brodmann areas, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25, 32, 44, 45, 46, and 47 are all in the prefrontal cortex
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Lebedev et al. experiment that dissociated representation of spatial attention from representation of spatial memory in prefrontal cortex
Animation, prefrontal cortex of left cerebral hemisphere (shown in red)
Front view
Lateral view
Medial perspective

Chronic intake of alcohol leads to persistent alterations in brain function including altered decision-making ability.

Child Abuse Awareness Banner in Sarasota, Florida

Child abuse

Physical, sexual, and/or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or a caregiver.

Physical, sexual, and/or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or a caregiver.

Child Abuse Awareness Banner in Sarasota, Florida
Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse
Possible ways for adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect to influence health and well-being throughout the lifespan, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A girl who was burned during religious violence in Orissa, India.
A child soldier in El Salvador, 1990.
FGM in Africa, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen, as of 2015 (map of Africa).
Attacks on schoolgirls in Afghanistan are common
Bride kidnapping is common in Central Asia

According to their findings, there was a series of correlations between the potential risk factors of parental employment status, alcohol abuse, and family size within the abuse ratings.

A conversation in American Sign Language

Emotional prosody

Various non-verbal aspects of language that allow people to convey or understand emotion.

Various non-verbal aspects of language that allow people to convey or understand emotion.

A conversation in American Sign Language

Aprosodia can be caused by stroke and alcohol abuse as well.

Kikuyu people

The Kikuyu (also Agĩkũyũ/Gĩkũyũ) are a Bantu ethnic group native to Central Kenya.

The Kikuyu (also Agĩkũyũ/Gĩkũyũ) are a Bantu ethnic group native to Central Kenya.

Kikuyu woman as painted by Akseli Gallen-Kallela in 1909
Portrait of Kenosua by Gallen-Kallela, 1909–1910
A Gikuyu man and his wife in 2020 in Kenya
Kikuyu chief Wanbugu (seated center) in talks with the High Commissioner of the East Africa Protectorate c. 1910
First President of Kenya Jomo Kenyatta
Governor of Central Bank of Kenya Ngugi Njoroge
Statue of Mau Mau Freedom Fighter Dedan Kimathi
Nobel Peace Prize Winner Wangari Maathai

John Michael Njenga Mututho, politician and anti-alcohol abuse campaigner

The Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa (1775–1836), ca. 1820, portrait by Charles Bird King

Shawnee

Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands.

Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands.

The Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa (1775–1836), ca. 1820, portrait by Charles Bird King
Fort Ancient Monongahela cultures by Herb Roe
Serpent Mound, Peebles, Ohio
1715 map showing the land of the "Chaouanons" (Shawnee)
Tecumseh, by Benson Lossing in 1848 based on 1808 drawing.
This portrait of Harrison originally showed him in civilian clothes as the Congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory in 1800.
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.
Flag of the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma
Flag of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
Flag of the Shawnee Tribe
First Shawnee Tribe coin issue: 2002—one dollar
Tecumseh commemorative dollar

While they gained arms and European goods, they also traded for rum or brandy, leading to serious social problems related to alcohol abuse by their members.

Moon in 1975

Keith Moon

English drummer for the rock band the Who.

English drummer for the rock band the Who.

Moon in 1975
Central Middlesex Hospital, Moon's place of birth
Moon backstage in Ludwigshafen, Germany, 1967
Moon singing at Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, 21 October 1976; he enjoyed singing whenever possible.
Premier's replica of the "Pictures of Lily" drum kit, which Moon used from 1967 to 1969
Advertisement for "Don't Worry Baby", 1974
Site of the former Holiday Inn in Flint, Michigan, where Moon's 21st birthday party was a notorious event (since this picture was taken, most of the building has been demolished).
Moon at Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, 21 October 1976. By this point in his career, it was uncertain whether he could finish a show without incident. Except for two informal shows filmed for The Kids are Alright, this was the drummer's last public performance with the Who.
Moon onstage in Toronto, 21 October 1976
9 Curzon Square in 2012; Moon lived on the fourth floor (top left) in 1978.
Moon's plaque at Golders Green Crematorium
Moon's blue plaque at the site of the former Marquee Club

He became addicted to alcohol, particularly brandy and champagne, and acquired a reputation for decadence and dark humour; his nickname was "Moon the Loon".