Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcoholalcohol addictiondrunkarddrinking problemalcohol use disorderalcohol abusedrinkingchronic alcoholism
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.wikipedia
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Alcohol (drug)

alcoholdrinkingdrink
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal.

Alcohol abuse

alcoholalcohol misuseabusing alcohol
The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.
The DSM-5 combined those two disorders into alcohol use disorder with sub-classifications of severity.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, an impaired immune response, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases. Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal.
Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Alcoholics Anonymous

AAAA meetingA.A.
One commonly used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonymous. The Big Book (from Alcoholics Anonymous) states that once a person is an alcoholic, they are always an alcoholic, but does not define what is meant by the term alcoholic in this context.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international mutual aid fellowship with the stated purpose of enabling its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety."

Acamprosate

Aotal
The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.
Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.

Disulfiram

Antabusetetraethylthiuram disulfideN,N,N'N'''-Tetraethylthiuram disulfide
The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).

Alcohol tolerance

alcohol-intoleranttolerancehigh tolerance
In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts of alcohol over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.
This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism.

Alcohol dependence

alcohol dependencyalcoholalcohol dependent
The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.
In 2013 it was reclassified as alcohol use disorder in DSM-5, which combined alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse into this diagnosis.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

alcohol withdrawalwithdrawalalcohol
In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts of alcohol over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.
In the Western world about 15% of people have problems with alcoholism at some point in time.

Alcohol detoxification

detoxificationdetoxalcohol detox treatment
Due to medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled.
Alcohol detoxification, or detox, for individuals with alcohol dependence, is the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake, a process often coupled with substitution of cross-tolerant drugs that have effects similar to the effects of alcohol in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal.

Naltrexone

Revianaltrexone hydrochlorideSinclair method
The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.
Naltrexone has been best studied as a treatment for alcoholism.

Binge drinking

benderdrinking bingebinge
The risk of alcohol dependence begins at low levels of drinking and increases directly with both the volume of alcohol consumed and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasion, to the point of intoxication, which is sometimes called "binge drinking".
The more often a child or adolescent binge drinks and the younger they are the more likely that they will develop an alcohol use disorder including alcoholism.

Alcohol flush reaction

flushed, red appearance in the faceflushingalcohol flushing
Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03–0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood and possible euphoria (a "happy" feeling), increased self-confidence and sociability, decreased anxiety, a flushed, red appearance in the face and impaired judgment and fine muscle coordination.
Individuals who experience the alcohol flushing reaction may be less prone to alcoholism.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
High stress levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol's inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk.
Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of growth hormone, as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse.

Confusion

mental confusionconfusedconfusing
Psychosis, confusion, and organic brain syndrome may be caused by alcohol misuse, which can lead to a misdiagnosis such as schizophrenia.

Polyneuropathy

polyneuropathiesaxonopathyneuronopathy
Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal.

Social skills

interpersonal skillssocial skillsocially awkward
Social skills are significantly impaired in people suffering from alcoholism due to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex area of the brain.
Social skills are significantly impaired in people suffering from alcoholism.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Men with alcohol-use disorders more often have a co-occurring diagnosis of narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, impulse disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Substance abuse (including alcohol) also follows this trend, thereby appearing to depict bipolar symptoms as no more than a consequence of substance abuse.

Alcoholic drink

alcoholic beveragealcoholalcoholic beverages
Beer alone is the world's most widely consumed alcoholic beverage; it is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.
Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, cancer, physical dependence, and alcoholism.

Alcohol law

liquor lawsalcohol taxTaxation and regulation of alcohol production
Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing inexpensive treatment.
The Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Act 2012 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament, which introduces a statutory minimum price for alcohol, initially 50p per unit, as an element in the programme to counter alcohol problems.

Bill W.

Bill WilsonBill WWilliam Griffith Wilson
In 1960, Bill W., co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), said:
AA is an international mutual aid fellowship with about 2 million members worldwide belonging to approximately 10,000 groups, associations, organizations, cooperatives, and fellowships of alcoholics helping other alcoholics achieve and maintain sobriety.

The Big Book (Alcoholics Anonymous)

Big BookThe Big BookAlcoholics Anonymous
The Big Book (from Alcoholics Anonymous) states that once a person is an alcoholic, they are always an alcoholic, but does not define what is meant by the term alcoholic in this context.
Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How Many Thousands of Men and Women Have Recovered from Alcoholism (generally known as The Big Book because of the thickness of the paper used in the first edition) is a 1939 basic text, describing how to recover from alcoholism, primarily written by William G. "Bill W." Wilson, one of the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).

Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeKorsakoff's SyndromeKorsakoff psychosis
This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, an impaired immune response, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases. Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal.
As stated above, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome in the United States is usually found in malnourished chronic alcoholics, though it is also found in patients who undergo prolonged intravenous (IV) therapy without vitamin B 1 supplementation, gastric stapling, intensive care unit (ICU) stays hunger strikes, or people with eating disorders.

Theory of mind

theory of mind (ToM)theory of the mindtheory of other minds
The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.
Impairments in theory of mind, as well as other social-cognitive deficits are commonly found in people suffering from alcoholism, due to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Severe childhood trauma is also associated with a general increase in the risk of drug dependency.
Typical causes and dangers of psychological trauma include harassment, embarrassment, abandonment, abusive relationships, rejection, co-dependence, physical assault, sexual abuse, partner battery, employment discrimination, police brutality, judicial corruption and misconduct, bullying, paternalism, domestic violence, indoctrination, being the victim of an alcoholic parent, the threat or the witnessing of violence (particularly in childhood), life-threatening medical conditions, and medication-induced trauma.