Alcoholism

A French temperance organisation poster depicting the effects of alcoholism in a family, c. 1915
Some of the possible long-term effects of ethanol an individual may develop. Additionally, in pregnant women, alcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
"The bottle has done its work". Reproduction of an etching by G. Cruikshank, 1847.
Mental health as a risk factor for alcohol dependency or abuse.
William Hogarth's Gin Lane, 1751
A man drinking from a bottle of liquor while sitting on a boardwalk, ca. 1905–1914. Picture by Austrian photographer Emil Mayer.
A regional service center for Alcoholics Anonymous.
Alcohol consumption per person 2016.
Adriaen Brouwer, Inn with Drunken Peasants, 1620s
1904 advertisement describing alcoholism as a disease.

Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems.

- Alcoholism
A French temperance organisation poster depicting the effects of alcoholism in a family, c. 1915

66 related topics

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The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

The mediating factors of violent acts, however, are most consistently found to be mainly socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as being young, male, of lower socioeconomic status and, in particular, substance use (including alcohol use) to which some people may be particularly vulnerable.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)

Major depressive disorder

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)
An 1892 lithograph of a woman diagnosed with melancholia
A cup analogy demonstrating the diathesis–stress model that under the same amount of stressors, person 2 is more vulnerable than person 1, because of their predisposition.
Caricature of a man with depression
Physical exercise is one recommended way to manage mild depression.
Sertraline (Zoloft) is used primarily to treat major depression in adults.
Diagnoses of depression go back at least as far as Hippocrates.
The 16th American president, Abraham Lincoln, had "melancholy", a condition that now may be referred to as clinical depression.

Depression is also frequently comorbid with alcohol use disorder and personality disorders.

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, carelessness, hyperactivity (which can evolve into inner restlessness in adulthood), and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, carelessness, hyperactivity (which can evolve into inner restlessness in adulthood), and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting
The left prefrontal cortex, shown here in blue, is often affected in ADHD.
Percent of people 4–17 ever diagnosed in the US as of 2011
Timeline of ADHD diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and treatment

Many adults with ADHD without diagnosis and treatment have a disorganized life, and some use non-prescribed drugs or alcohol as a coping mechanism.

Service members use art to relieve PTSD symptoms.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Mental and behavioral disorder that can develop because of exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, domestic violence, or other threats on a person's life.

Mental and behavioral disorder that can develop because of exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, domestic violence, or other threats on a person's life.

Service members use art to relieve PTSD symptoms.
No quieren (They do not want to) by Francisco Goya (1746–1828) depicts an elderly woman wielding a knife in defense of a girl being assaulted by a soldier.
Regions of the brain associated with stress and post-traumatic stress disorder
The diagram depicts how emotions, thoughts, and behaviors all influence each other. The triangle in the middle represents CBT's tenet that all humans' core beliefs can be summed up in three categories: self, others, future.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Statue, Three Servicemen, Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Substance use disorder, such as alcohol use disorder, commonly co-occur with PTSD.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.

Bipolar disorder

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Bipolar mood shifts
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with hilarious mania
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'
'Melancholy' by William Bagg, after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder.
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children.
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century.
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokesperson for mental illness.

Substance (including alcohol) abuse also follows this trend, thereby appearing to depict bipolar symptoms as no more than a consequence of substance abuse.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.

Psychosis

Abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.
Bust of Hippocrates
Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907)

Approximately three percent of people with alcoholism experience psychosis during acute intoxication or withdrawal.

Despair by Edvard Munch (1894), who is presumed to have lived with borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder

Personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.

Personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.

Despair by Edvard Munch (1894), who is presumed to have lived with borderline personality disorder
One of the symptoms of BPD is an intense fear of abandonment.
Scarring as a result of self-harm, which is a common sign in borderline personality disorder.
The stages used in dialectical behavior therapy
Devaluation in Edvard Munch's Salome (1903). Idealization and devaluation of others in personal relations is a common trait in BPD. The painter Edvard Munch depicted his new friend, the violinist Eva Mudocci, in both ways within days. First as "a woman seen by a man in love", then as "a bloodthirsty and cannibalistic Salome". In modern times, Munch has been diagnosed as having had BPD.

Impulsive behavior is common, including substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol use disorder), eating in excess, unprotected sex or indiscriminate sex with multiple partners, reckless spending, and reckless driving.

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s

Dementia

Damaged by injury or disease.

Damaged by injury or disease.

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
A drawing of a woman diagnosed with dementia
A drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia
Brain atrophy in severe Alzheimer's
Donepezil
Deaths per million persons in 2012 due to dementia
Disability-adjusted life year for Alzheimer and other dementias per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
Woman with dementia being cared for at home in Ethiopia

A degree of brain damage is seen in more than 70% of those with alcohol use disorder.

Diazepam tablets (10, 5, and 2 mg)

Diazepam

Medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic.

Medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic.

Diazepam tablets (10, 5, and 2 mg)
5 mg Valium Roche packaging Australia

These adverse reactions are more likely to occur in children, the elderly, and individuals with a history of a substance use disorder, such as an alcohol use disorder, or a history of aggressive behavior.

Ethanol

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

Set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

Ethanol
Acute confusional state caused by alcohol withdrawal, also known as delirium tremens

In the Western world about 15% of people have problems with alcohol use disorder at some point in time.