Alcuin

Alcuin of YorkAlcuin’spoem on the Saints of YorkSaint Alcuin of York
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; c. undefined 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.wikipedia
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York

City of YorkYork, EnglandCity of York Council
undefined 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York.

Tours

Tours, FranceTourangeauCaesarodunum
He was made Abbot of Tours in 796, where he remained until his death.
In the 9th century, Tours was at the heart of the Carolingian Rebirth, in particular because of Alcuin abbot of Marmoutier.

Carolingian Renaissance

CarolingianCarolingian periodCarolingian Reforms
"The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne (ca. 817-833), he is considered among the most important architects of the Carolingian Renaissance. He joined an illustrious group of scholars that Charlemagne had gathered around him, the mainsprings of the Carolingian Renaissance: Peter of Pisa, Paulinus of Aquileia, Rado, and Abbot Fulrad.
It was supported by the scholars of the Carolingian court, notably Alcuin of York.

Willibrord

Saint WillibrordSt. WillibrordSaint Willibrord’s
Alcuin's own work only mentions such collateral kinsmen as Wilgils, father of the missionary saint Willibrord; and Beornred, abbot of Echternach and bishop of Sens, who was more distantly related.
His father, named Wilgils or Hilgis, was styled by Alcuin as a Saxon of Northumbria.

Bede

Venerable BedeThe Venerable BedeSaint Bede
Ecgbert had been a disciple of the Venerable Bede, who urged him to raise York to an archbishopric.
He is well known as an author, teacher (a student of one of his pupils was Alcuin), and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History".

St Peter's School, York

St Peter's SchoolSt. Peter's SchoolSt Peter
His ascendancy to the headship of the York school, the ancestor of St Peter's School, began after Aelbert became Archbishop of York in 767.
An early headmaster Alcuin (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus), went on to be Chancellor to the Emperor Charlemagne, and founded several of the earliest schools in mainland Europe.

Einhard

EginhardEinhartEginhardus
"The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne (ca. 817-833), he is considered among the most important architects of the Carolingian Renaissance.
Charlemagne actively sought to amass scholarly men around him and established a royal school led by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin.

Æthelbert of York

Æthelbert ÆthelbertAelbert
His ascendancy to the headship of the York school, the ancestor of St Peter's School, began after Aelbert became Archbishop of York in 767.
He taught a number of missionaries and scholars, including Alcuin, at the school.

Rabanus Maurus

Hrabanus MaurusHrabanSaint Rabanus Maurus
He revived the school with the trivium and quadrivium disciplines, writing a codex on the trivium, while his student Hraban wrote one on the quadrivium.
There he studied under Alcuin, who in recognition of his diligence and purity gave him the surname of Maurus, after the favourite disciple of Benedict, Saint Maurus.

Eanbald (died 796)

EanbaldEanbald I
In 781, King Elfwald sent Alcuin to Rome to petition the Pope for official confirmation of York's status as an archbishopric and to confirm the election of the new archbishop, Eanbald I.
Eanbald was a fellow student at York with Alcuin under Æthelbert, his predecessor at York.

Kingdom of Northumbria

NorthumbriaNorthumbrianNorthumbrians
undefined 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Alcuin was a student and teacher at York before he left for the court of Charlemagne in 782.

Charlemagne

CharlesCharles the GreatEmperor Charlemagne
At the invitation of Charlemagne, he became a leading scholar and teacher at the Carolingian court, where he remained a figure in the 780s and '90s. He wrote many letters to his English friends, to Arno, bishop of Salzburg and above all to Charlemagne.
Charlemagne, advised by scholar Alcuin, travelled to Rome, in November 800 and held a synod.

Ecgbert of York

EcgbertEgbertEcgberht
He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop Ecgbert at York.
Among the students at the school was Alcuin, who was placed by his family with Ecgbert.

Peter of Pisa

Petrus Grammaticus
He joined an illustrious group of scholars that Charlemagne had gathered around him, the mainsprings of the Carolingian Renaissance: Peter of Pisa, Paulinus of Aquileia, Rado, and Abbot Fulrad.
In 776, after Charlemagne's conquest of the Lombard Kingdom, Peter was summoned to the Carolingian court along with Paul the Deacon and Alcuin.

Paulinus II of Aquileia

Paulinus IIPaulinusPaulinus of Aquileia
He joined an illustrious group of scholars that Charlemagne had gathered around him, the mainsprings of the Carolingian Renaissance: Peter of Pisa, Paulinus of Aquileia, Rado, and Abbot Fulrad.
It was at the itinerant palace school (schola palatina) that Paulinus would stay for about ten years and make the acquaintance of other leading scholars of the age, including Peter of Pisa, Alcuin of York, Fardulf, Arno of Salzburg, Albrico, Riculph, Raefgot, Rado, Lullus, Bassinus, Fuldrad, Eginard, Adalard and Adelbert.

Beatus of Liébana

BeatusCancionero de Liébana
He is believed to have had contacts with Beatus of Liébana, from the Kingdom of Asturias, who fought against Adoptionism.
As confessor to Queen Adosinda, wife of Silo of Asturias, and as teacher of Alcuin of York and Etherius of Osma, Beatus exercised wide influence.

Carolingian minuscule

CarolingianminusculeCaroline Minuscule
There he encouraged the work of the monks on the beautiful Carolingian minuscule script, ancestor of modern Roman typefaces. Alcuin made the abbey school into a model of excellence and many students flocked to it. He had many manuscripts copied using outstandingly beautiful calligraphy, the Carolingian minuscule based on round and legible uncial letters.
It was developed for the first time, in about 780, by a Benedictine monk of Corbie Abbey (about 150 km north of Paris), namely, Alcuin of York.

Arno of Salzburg

ArnoArno, bishop of Salzburg
He wrote many letters to his English friends, to Arno, bishop of Salzburg and above all to Charlemagne.
He preserved his voluminous correspondence from the scholar Alcuin of York.

Adoptionism

adoptionistAdoptionistsadopted
He dwelt there for some time, but Charlemagne then invited him back to help in the fight against the Adoptionist heresy which was at that time making great progress in Toledo, the old capital of the Visigoths and still a major city for the Christians under Islamic rule in Spain.
In Spain, adoptionism was opposed by Beatus of Liebana, and in the Carolingian territories, the Adoptionist position was condemned by Pope Hadrian I, Alcuin of York, Agobard, and officially in Carolingian territory by the Council of Frankfurt (794).

Calligraphy

calligraphercalligraphiccalligraphers
Alcuin made the abbey school into a model of excellence and many students flocked to it. He had many manuscripts copied using outstandingly beautiful calligraphy, the Carolingian minuscule based on round and legible uncial letters.
Charlemagne's devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of "a crowd of scribes", according to Alcuin, the Abbot of York.

River crossing puzzle

river-crossing problemsriver crossingsriver-crossing puzzle
Among the most famous of these problems are: four that involve river crossings, including the problem of three anxious brothers, each of whom has an unmarried sister whom he cannot leave alone with either of the other men lest she be defiled (Problem 17); the problem of the wolf, goat, and cabbage (Problem 18); and the problem of "the two adults and two children where the children weigh half as much as the adults" (Problem 19).
The earliest known river-crossing problems occur in the manuscript Propositiones ad Acuendos Juvenes (Problems to sharpen the young), traditionally said to be written by Alcuin.

Question mark

????interrogation point
Alcuin is credited with inventing the first known question mark, though it didn't resemble the modern symbol.
Lynne Truss attributes an early form of the modern question mark in western language to Alcuin of York.

Kingdom of Asturias

AsturiasAsturianAsturians
He is believed to have had contacts with Beatus of Liébana, from the Kingdom of Asturias, who fought against Adoptionism.
They did not need to design new laws; the Visigothic Code was the referential code at least since the arrival of new influences (exiles, prisoners) from flat, central areas of al-Andalus in the 770s along with their mixed Berber-Arabic and Gothic legacy, as well as the governmental and religious ideas imported from Charlemagne's Frankish Kingdom (Alcuin-Beatus of Liébana link).

Æthelhard

Archbishop ÆthelheardÆthelheard
He was back at Charlemagne's court by at least mid-792, writing a series of letters to Æthelred, to Hygbald, Bishop of Lindisfarne, and to Æthelhard, Archbishop of Canterbury in the succeeding months, dealing with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in July 793.
King Offa consulted Alcuin of York over proper procedure, as the archbishopric of Lichfield was a new creation.

Lindisfarne

Holy IslandLindisfarne Priory793 raid on the island of Lindisfarne
He was back at Charlemagne's court by at least mid-792, writing a series of letters to Æthelred, to Hygbald, Bishop of Lindisfarne, and to Æthelhard, Archbishop of Canterbury in the succeeding months, dealing with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in July 793.
Alcuin, a Northumbrian scholar in Charlemagne's court at the time, wrote: