Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.wikipedia
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Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

Mineralocorticoid

mineralocorticoidsmineralcorticoidantinatriuretic agent
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
The primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone.

Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

Zona glomerulosa

cells
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex.
In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood as part of the renin–angiotensin system.

Spironolactone

AldactoneAldactazideSpironalactone
Another example is spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic of the steroidal spirolactone group, which decreases blood pressure by releasing fluid from the body while retaining potassium.
It is a steroid that blocks the effects of the hormones aldosterone and testosterone and has some estrogen-like effects.

Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin system
Aldosterone is part of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.

Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait

SimpsonSylvia TaitSylvia Tait (scientist)
Aldosterone was first isolated by Simpson and Tait in 1953.
Together, they discovered and identified the hormone aldosterone, the last of a series of naturally occurring biologically potent steroid hormones to be isolated and identified between the 1920s to the 1950s, after the androgens, oestrogens, and glucocorticoid hormones.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex.
Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone and aldosterone.

James Francis Tait

Tait
Aldosterone was first isolated by Simpson and Tait in 1953.
Together, they discovered and identified the hormone aldosterone.

Spirolactone

17α-Spirolactone
Another example is spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic of the steroidal spirolactone group, which decreases blood pressure by releasing fluid from the body while retaining potassium.
They are antimineralocorticoids, or antagonists of the mineralocorticoid receptor (which is activated predominantly by the mineralocorticoid steroid hormone aldosterone), and have been employed clinically as potassium-sparing diuretics.

21-Hydroxylase

CYP21A2steroid 21-hydroxylasesteroid 21-monooxygenase
They are located within the mitochondria and require adrenodoxin as a cofactor (except 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase).
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-hydroxylase, P45021A2, and, less commonly 21β-hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.

Nephron

renal tubulenephronsrenal tubules
It does so primarily by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron.
Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, include (along with the substance affected) antidiuretic hormone (water), aldosterone (sodium, potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium).

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
It influences the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium (from and into the tubular fluids, respectively) of the kidney, thereby indirectly influencing water retention or loss, blood pressure and blood volume.
Various endocrine hormones coordinate these endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide, among others.

Aldosterone synthase

18-hydroxylaseCYP11B218-Hydroxylase deficiency
The last parts are mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone).
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.

Distal convoluted tubule

distal tubuledistal convoluted tubulesdistal tubules
It does so primarily by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron.

Cholesterol

total cholesteroldietary cholesterolserum cholesterol
The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex.
For example, it is the precursor molecule for the synthesis of vitamin D in the calcium metabolism and all steroid hormones, including the adrenal gland hormones cortisol and aldosterone, as well as the sex hormones progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone, and their derivatives.

Homeostasis

homeostaticequilibriumimmunomodulation
It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ) levels.
Angiotensin II is a hormone which acts on the adrenal cortex, causing the release into the blood of the steroid hormone, aldosterone.

Angiotensin

angiotensin IIangiotensin Iangiotensinogen
However, mouse zona glomerulosa cells within adrenal slices spontaneously generate membrane potential oscillations of low periodicity; this innate electrical excitability of zona glomerulosa cells provides a platform for the production of a recurrent Ca 2+ channels signal that can be controlled by angiotensin II and extracellular potassium, the 2 major regulators of aldosterone production.
Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex to promote sodium retention by the kidneys.

Adrenal insufficiency

adrenocortical insufficiencyadrenal suppressionhypoadrenalism
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

angiotensin converting enzymeACEpeptidyl-dipeptidase a
Drugs that interfere with the secretion or action of aldosterone are in use as antihypertensives, like lisinopril, which lowers blood pressure by blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), leading to lower aldosterone secretion.
In addition, inhibiting angiotensin II formation diminishes angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex, leading to a decrease in water and sodium reabsorption and a reduction in extracellular volume.

Steroid

steroidssteroidogenesisbiosynthesis of steroids
Another example is spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic of the steroidal spirolactone group, which decreases blood pressure by releasing fluid from the body while retaining potassium.

Voltage-gated calcium channel

voltage-dependent calcium channelvoltage-gated calcium channelsVDCC
Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels have been detected in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal, which suggests that Ca 2+ channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in vivo.
VGCCs have been immunolocalized in the zona glomerulosa of normal and hyperplastic human adrenal, as well as in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA), and in the latter T-type VGCCs correlated with plasma aldosterone levels of patients.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
It influences the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium (from and into the tubular fluids, respectively) of the kidney, thereby indirectly influencing water retention or loss, blood pressure and blood volume. It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ) levels.

Atrial natriuretic peptide

atrial natriuretic factorANPAtriopeptin
Aldosterone has exactly the opposite function of the atrial natriuretic hormone secreted by the heart.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ) levels. It is essential for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon.
Reduction of blood pressure and sodium concentration in the kidney result in the production of renin, which in turn produces aldosterone and angiotensin, which stimulates the reabsorption of sodium back into the bloodstream.