Aleppo

Emirate of AleppoHalabAleppo, SyriaBeroeaHalepAleppineAlepAllepoAleppanAleppo City
Aleppo (ﺣَﻠَﺐ / ALA-LC:, ; Alep) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.wikipedia
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Damascus

Damascus, SyriaSultanate of DamascusDamascene
With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War; however, now Aleppo is the second-largest city in Syria after the capital Damascus.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian Arabic:, Damas) is the capital of Syria; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

Aleppo Governorate

AleppoAleppo ProvinceAleppo G.
Aleppo (ﺣَﻠَﺐ / ALA-LC:, ; Alep) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.
The capital is the city of Aleppo.

Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War; however, now Aleppo is the second-largest city in Syria after the capital Damascus.
The war, which began on 15 March 2011 with major unrest in Damascus and Aleppo, is being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved or providing support to one or another faction (Iran, Russia, Turkey, the United States, as well as others).

Yamhad

YamkhadIamḫadYamhad Kingdom
This is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is a part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, and is noted for its commercial and military proficiency.
Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Aleppo (ﺣَﻠَﺐ / ALA-LC:, ; Alep) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

Syrian Jews

Syrian JewishSyrianSyrian-Jewish
From the 11th century it was common Rabbinic usage to apply the term "Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, and many Syrian Jews continue to do so.
There were large communities in Aleppo ("Halabi Jews", Aleppo is Halab in Arabic) and Damascus ("Shami Jews") for centuries, and a smaller community in Qamishli on the Turkish border near Nusaybin.

List of rulers of Aleppo

Emir of AleppoEmirSultan of Aleppo
Later the Hittite king Suppiluliumas I permanently defeated Mitanni and conquered Aleppo in the 14th century BC, Suppiluliumas installed his son Telepinus as king and a dynasty of Suppiluliumas descendants ruled Aleppo until the Late Bronze Age collapse.
The rulers of Aleppo ruled as kings, Emirs and Sultans of the city and its region since the later half of the 3rd millennium BC, starting with the kings of Armi, followed by the Amorite dynasty of Yamhad, and ending with the Ayyubid dynasty which was ousted by the Mongol conquest in 1260.

Yarim-Lim I

Yarim-LimYarimlim
1800–1525 BC), alternatively known as the 'land of Ḥalab,' was one of the most powerful in the Near East during the reign of Yarim-Lim I, who formed an alliance with Hammurabi of Babylonia against Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria.
1780 BC) was the second king of the ancient Amorite kingdom of Yamhad in modern-day Aleppo, Syria.

Citadel of Aleppo

CitadelAleppo CitadelAleppo's citadel
In 2003, a statue of a king named Taita bearing inscriptions in Luwian was discovered during excavations conducted by German archeologist Kay Kohlmeyer in the Citadel of Aleppo.
The Citadel of Aleppo is a large medieval fortified palace in the centre of the old city of Aleppo, northern Syria.

Ebla tablets

Tablets of Eblaarchives of Eblaarchives
The first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, in the Ebla tablets when Aleppo was referred to as Ha-lam .
Today, the tablets are held in museums in the Syrian cities of Aleppo, Damascus, and Idlib.

Aram (region)

AramArameaAramean
The region remained known as Aramea and Eber Nari throughout these periods.
Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day Syria, including where the city of Aleppo now stands.

Arameans

ArameanAramaeanAramaeans
At some point in the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, Aleppo became part of the Aramean state of Bit Agusi (which had its capital at Arpad).
Their political influence was confined to a number of states such as Aram Damascus, Hamath, Palmyra, Aleppo and the partly Aramean Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire (935–605 BC) by the 9th century BC.

Church of Saint Simeon Stylites

Deir SemaanQal'at Sim'anbasilica of St. Simeon Stylites
This agrarian landscape still holds the remains of large estate houses and churches such as the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites.
The Church of Saint Simeon Stylites is a building that can be traced back to the 5th century, located approximately 30 km northwestern part of Aleppo, Syria.

Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

French MandateFrench Mandate of SyriaFrench Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon
During the Crusades, and again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used.
The Arabs hoped, with faith in earlier British promises, that the new Arab state would include all the Arab lands stretching from Aleppo in northern Syria to Aden in southern Yemen.

Ilim-Ilimma I

Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region, Parshatatar, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king Ilim-Ilimma I in c. 1525 BC, Subsequently, Parshatatar conquered Aleppo and the city found itself on the frontline in the struggle between the Mitanni, the Hittites and Egypt.
Ilim-Ilimma I (reigned middle 16th century BC - c. 1524 BC - Middle chronology) was the king of Halab (formerly Yamhad) succeeding his father Abba-El II.

Mitanni

MittaniHanigalbatMitannians
Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region, Parshatatar, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king Ilim-Ilimma I in c. 1525 BC, Subsequently, Parshatatar conquered Aleppo and the city found itself on the frontline in the struggle between the Mitanni, the Hittites and Egypt.
Their allies included Kizuwatna in southeastern Anatolia; Mukish, which stretched between Ugarit and Quatna west of the Orontes to the sea; and the Niya, which controlled the east bank of the Orontes from Alalah down through Aleppo, Ebla and Hama to Qatna and Kadesh.

Sayf al-Dawla

Sayf al-DaulaSaif al-DaulaSayf ad-Dawla
In 944, it became the seat of an independent Emirate under the Hamdanid prince Sayf al-Dawla, and enjoyed a period of great prosperity, being home to the great poet al-Mutanabbi and the philosopher and polymath al-Farabi.
ʿAlī ibn ʾAbū l-Hayjāʾ ʿAbdallāh ibn Ḥamdān ibn al-Ḥārith al-Taghlibī, more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf al-Dawla (سيف الدولة, "Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).

Berlin–Baghdad railway

Baghdad RailwayBerlin-Baghdad RailwayBerlin to Constantinople
At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo lost its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important Baghdad Railway connecting it to Mosul.
Therefore, the coastal way from Alexandretta to Aleppo was avoided.

Bit Agusi

ArpadBît-Agushi
At some point in the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, Aleppo became part of the Aramean state of Bit Agusi (which had its capital at Arpad).
It had included the cities of Arpad, Nampigi (Nampigu) and later on Aleppo.

Mirdasid dynasty

MirdasidsMirdasidMirdasid emirate
They were later converted into mosques by the Mirdasids during the 11th century.
The Mirdasid dynasty was an Arab dynasty that controlled the Emirate of Aleppo more or less continuously from 1024 until 1080.

Hittites

HittiteHittite EmpireHatti
Yamḥad was devastated by the Hittites under Mursilis I in the 16th century BC.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria.

Arpad, Syria

Arpad
At some point in the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, Aleppo became part of the Aramean state of Bit Agusi (which had its capital at Arpad).
Arpad (probably modern Tell Rifaat, Syria) was an ancient Aramaean Syro-Hittite city located in north-western Syria, north of Aleppo.

1138 Aleppo earthquake

a deadly earthquakeAn earthquakeEarthquake
On 9 August 1138, a deadly earthquake ravaged the city and the surrounding area.
Its name was taken from the city of Aleppo, in northern Syria, where the most casualties were sustained.

Palistin

Walistin
The new readings of Anatolian hieroglyphic signs proposed by the Hittitologists Elisabeth Rieken and Ilya Yakubovich were conducive to the conclusion that the country ruled by Taita was called Palistin.
The kingdom emerged some time soon after the collapse of the Hittite Empire, of which it is one of the successor states, and it encompassed a relatively extensive area, stretching at least from the Amouq Valley in the west, to Aleppo in the east, down to Mhardeh and Shaizar in the south.

Ayyubid dynasty

AyyubidAyyubidsAyyubid Sultanate
In 1183 Aleppo came under the control of Saladin and then the Ayyubid dynasty.
In the 1230s, the emirs of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and the Ayyubid realm remained divided until Sultan as-Salih Ayyub restored its unity by conquering most of Syria, except Aleppo, by 1247.