Alexander Dubček

DubčekAlexander DubcekDubcekMr. Dubček
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.wikipedia
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Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968.
It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to suppress the reforms.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion
He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968.
The invasion successfully stopped Alexander Dubček's Prague Spring liberalisation reforms and strengthened the authority of the authoritarian wing within the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCommunistKSČ
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969. During the war, Alexander Dubček joined the Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS), which had been created after the formation of the Slovak state and in 1948 was transformed into the Slovak branch of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).
In 1968, party leader Alexander Dubček proposed reforms that included a democratic process and this led to the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union.

Socialism with a human face

a human facedemocracy-oriented reforms in Czechoslovakiadeveloped socialism
During his leadership, under the slogan of "Socialism with a human face", Czechoslovakia lifted censorship on the media and liberalized Czechoslovak society, fuelling the so-called New Wave in Czechoslovak filmography.
Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s ľudskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues agreed at Presidium of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on April 1968 after he became the chairman of the Party in January 1968.

Normalization (Czechoslovakia)

normalizationnormalisationNormalization period
Dubček resigned in April 1969 and was succeeded by Gustav Husák, who initiated normalization.
It was characterized by the restoration of the conditions prevailing before the Prague Spring reform period led by First Secretary Alexander Dubček of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) earlier in 1968 and the subsequent preservation of the new status quo.

Gustáv Husák

HusákGustav HusákHusakian
Dubček resigned in April 1969 and was succeeded by Gustav Husák, who initiated normalization.
In April 1968, during the Prague Spring under new party leader and fellow Slovak Alexander Dubček, Husák became a vice-premier of Czechoslovakia, responsible for overseeing reforms in Slovakia.

Antonín Novotný

NovotnýAntonín Novotný Jr.Novotny
In 1963, a power struggle in the leadership of the Slovak branch unseated Karol Bacílek and Pavol David, hard-line allies of Antonín Novotný, First Secretary of the KSČ and President of Czechoslovakia. In October 1967, a number of reformers, most notably Ota Šik and Alexander Dubček, took action: they challenged First Secretary Antonín Novotný at a Central Committee meeting.
An ardent hardliner, Novotný was forced to yield the reins of power to Alexander Dubček during the short-lived reform movement of 1968.

Slovaks

SlovakSlovakianSlovakians
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Slovakia is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Matej Bel, Ján Kollár, and its political revolutionaries, such Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Alexander Dubček.

Communist Party of Slovakia (1939)

Communist Party of SlovakiaCommunist PartyKSS
During the war, Alexander Dubček joined the Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS), which had been created after the formation of the Slovak state and in 1948 was transformed into the Slovak branch of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).
The most important first secretaries were Alexander Dubček (1963–1968) and Jozef Lenárt (1970–1988).

Politics of Communist Czechoslovakia

communist governmentCzechoslovakia
He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968.
The August intervention by forces from the Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Poland, Bulgaria, and Hungary marked the beginning of the end of the Prague Spring and the reformist policies introduced by the Alexander Dubček regime.

History of Czechoslovakia (1948–89)

CzechoslovakiaCommunist eracommunist regime
After the war, he steadily rose through the ranks in Communist Czechoslovakia.
At the 30–31 October 1967 meeting of the KSČ Central Committee, Alexander Dubček, a Slovak reformer who had studied in the Soviet Union, challenged Novotný and was accused of nationalism.

Prague

PrahaPrague, Czech RepublicPrag
The Czechoslovak planned economy in the 1960s was in serious decline and the imposition of central control from Prague disappointed local Communists, while the destalinization program caused further disquiet.
This spurred the new secretary of the Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face".

Ota Šik

Šik, Ota
In October 1967, a number of reformers, most notably Ota Šik and Alexander Dubček, took action: they challenged First Secretary Antonín Novotný at a Central Committee meeting.
At Mauthausen Šik's fellow inmates included Antonín Novotný, the future president of Czechoslovakia (who was succeeded by the leader of the Prague Spring Alexander Dubček), and Dubček's father, Štefan.

Ľudovít Štúr

ŠtúrLjudevit ŠturLudovit Stur
This mainly took the form of celebrations and commemorations, such as the 150th birthdays of 19th century leaders of the Slovak National Revival Ľudovít Štúr and Jozef Miloslav Hurban, the centenary of the Matica slovenská in 1963, and the twentieth anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising.
Ľudovít Štúr was born on 29 October 1815 in Uhrovec, in the Austrian Empire (in the same house where Alexander Dubček was later born) as the second child of Samuel and Anna Štúr.

Leonid Brezhnev

BrezhnevBrezhnev, LeonidBrezhnevite
Novotný faced a mutiny in the Central Committee, so he secretly invited Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet leader, to make a whirlwind visit to Prague in December 1967 in order to shore up his own position.
The Soviet Union did not accept all kinds of reforms, an example being the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 in response to Alexander Dubček's reforms.

Ludvík Svoboda

Czechoslovak General Ludvík SvobodaGeneral in command of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, Ludvík SvobodaSvoboda
"Dubček! Svoboda!"
After the ending of the Antonín Novotný regime, in the period known as the Prague Spring, Svoboda was elected President of Czechoslovakia on 30 March 1968, on the recommendation of Alexander Dubček, the First Secretary.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989
Later, after the overthrow of the communist regime in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czechoslovak parliament.
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.

Interhelpo

When he was three, the family moved to the Soviet Union, in part to help build socialism and in part because jobs were scarce in Czechoslovakia; so that he was raised until 12 in the Kirghiz SSR of the Soviet Union (now Kyrgyzstan) as a member of the Esperantist and Idist industrial cooperative Interhelpo.
The famous Slovak politician Alexander Dubček also participated in this cooperative in his youth.

Sakharov Prize

Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought2014 Sakharov Prize2018 Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought
Also in 1989, the European Parliament awarded Dubček the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought.

Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia)

Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Federal Assembly
Later, after the overthrow of the communist regime in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czechoslovak parliament.
Alexander Dubček April 28, 1969 - October 15, 1969

Moscow Protocol

Nevertheless, the reformers were forced to accede to Soviet demands, signing the Moscow protocols, (with only František Kriegel refusing to sign): the tanks had crushed Dubcek's Prague Spring.
The main signatories were President Ludvík Svoboda, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubček, Prime Minister Oldřich Černík, Chairman of the National Assembly Josef Smrkovský and most of the ministers and Communist Party leaders (Gustáv Husák among them).

Jan Žižka partisan brigade

1st Czechoslovak Partisan Brigade of Jan ŽižkaCzech partisansBrigade of Jan Žižka
In August 1944, Dubček fought in the Jan Žižka partisan brigade during the Slovak National Uprising and was wounded twice, while his brother, Július, was killed.
*Alexander Dubček joined the brigade in August 1944.

Social Democratic Party of Slovakia

Slovak Social Democrats
In 1992, he became leader of the Social Democratic Party of Slovakia and represented that party in the Federal Assembly.
Its last chairman, since 1993, was Jaroslav Volf (politician), its chairman in 1992 was Alexander Dubček.

František Kriegel

Nevertheless, the reformers were forced to accede to Soviet demands, signing the Moscow protocols, (with only František Kriegel refusing to sign): the tanks had crushed Dubcek's Prague Spring.
When Alexander Dubček was elected the First Secretary of the Central Committee of KSČ in January 1968, Kriegel was one of the main proponents of the democratic wing of the Party.

Slávičie údolie cemetery

Cintorín Slávičie údolie
He was buried in Slávičie údolie cemetery in Bratislava, Slovakia.