Alexander Fleming

Sir Alexander FlemingFlemingAlex FlemingAlexanderAlexander Flemmingdish of moldSir Alexander Fleming Buildingthe man
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist, physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.wikipedia
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Howard Florey

Howard Walter FloreyHoward Florey, Baron FloreyLord Florey
His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, (24 September 1898 – 21 February 1968) was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Sir Ernst Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the development of penicillin.

100 Greatest Britons

Great Britonsgreatest Briton100 Great Britons
In 2002, he was chosen in the BBC's television poll for determining the 100 Greatest Britons, and in 2009, he was also voted third "greatest Scot" in an opinion poll conducted by STV, behind only Robert Burns and William Wallace.
The highest-placed Scottish entry was Alexander Fleming in 20th place, and the highest Welsh entry was Owain Glyndŵr in 23rd place.

Kilmarnock Academy

Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, and earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution.
Kilmarnock Academy is one of only two schools in the UK, and the only school in Scotland, to have educated two Nobel Prize Laureates – Alexander Fleming, discoverer of Penicillin, and John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr, for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Ernst Chain

Ernst Boris ChainChainSir Ernst Boris Chain
His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. In Oxford, Ernst Boris Chain and Edward Abraham were studying the molecular structure of the antibiotic.
This led him and Florey to revisit the work of Alexander Fleming, who had described penicillin nine years earlier.

Darvel

LochfieldDagon Stone
Born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Scotland, Alexander was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928), the daughter of a neighbouring farmer.

Almroth Wright

Almroth Edward WrightSir Almroth WrightA. E. Wright
The captain of the club, wishing to retain Fleming in the team, suggested that he join the research department at St Mary's, where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology.
Among the many bacteriologists who followed in Wright's footsteps at St Mary's was Sir Alexander Fleming, who in turn later discovered lysozyme and penicillin.

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
He identified the mould as being from the genus Penicillium, and, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929.
Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming.

St Mary's Hospital, London

St Mary's HospitalSt. Mary's HospitalSt. Mary's Hospital, Paddington
In 1918 he returned to St Mary's Hospital, where he was elected Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London in 1928.
It was at the hospital that Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928.

St Mary's Hospital Medical School

St MarySt. Mary's Hospital Medical SchoolSt Mary's Medical School
His elder brother, Tom, was already a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, and so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington; he qualified with an MBBS degree from the school with distinction in 1906.

Lysozyme

LYZmuramidaselysozymes
His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
The antibacterial property of hen egg white, due to the lysozyme it contains, was first observed by Laschtschenko in 1909, although it was not until 1922 that the name 'lysozyme' was coined, by Alexander Fleming, the second scientist to discover penicillin.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G) from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) discovered modern day penicillin in 1928.

Clodomiro Picado Twight

Clodomiro Picado Twight National Award of Science and Technology
Ernest Duchesne in 1897 in his thesis "Contribution to the study of vital competition in micro-organisms: antagonism between moulds and microbes", or also Clodomiro Picado Twight whose work at the Institut Pasteur in 1923 on the inhibiting action of fungi of the Penicillin sp. genre in the growth of staphylococci drew little interest from the directors of the Institut at the time.
His work resulted in compounds which he used to treat patients at least one year before the re-discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming.

Ayrshire

County of AyrAyrAyrshire, Scotland
Born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Scotland, Alexander was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928), the daughter of a neighbouring farmer.

Edward Abraham

Edward Penley AbrahamSir Edward AbrahamEdward & Asbjörg Abraham
In Oxford, Ernst Boris Chain and Edward Abraham were studying the molecular structure of the antibiotic.
Abraham completed his DPhil at the University of Oxford under the supervision of Sir Robert Robinson, during which he was the first to crystallise lysozyme, an enzyme discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming and shown to have antibacterial properties, and was later the first enzyme to have its structure solved using X-ray crystallography, by Lord David Philips.

University of Westminster

Regent Street PolytechnicPolytechnic of Central LondonLondon Polytechnic
Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, and earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution.
* Scientists and engineers including Sir Alexander Fleming (Awarded the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine), Sir Frederick Augustus Abel (chemist and inventor of cordite), Seweryn Chomet (theoretical physicist), Sir Diarmuid Downs (former President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers), Lewis R. B. Elton (physicist and researcher in education), George Hockham (engineer and pioneer in research for fiber-optics), Gerald Palmer (Car designer, including Jowett Javelin and MG Magnette), Walter Eric Spear (physicist and pioneer of thin film displays) and Armand de Waele (chemist and rheologist).

Ernest Duchesne

Ernest Duchesne in 1897 in his thesis "Contribution to the study of vital competition in micro-organisms: antagonism between moulds and microbes", or also Clodomiro Picado Twight whose work at the Institut Pasteur in 1923 on the inhibiting action of fungi of the Penicillin sp. genre in the growth of staphylococci drew little interest from the directors of the Institut at the time.
He made this discovery 32 years before Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic properties of penicillin, a substance derived from those molds, but his research went unnoticed.

University of London

London UniversityLondonThe University of London
In 1918 he returned to St Mary's Hospital, where he was elected Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London in 1928.
Additional vital progress was made by University of London people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA (Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin); the invention of modern electronic computers (Tommy Flowers); the discovery of penicillin (Alexander Fleming and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray technology (William Henry Bragg and Charles Glover Barkla); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10 (Anne O'Garra); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism (James Clerk Maxwell); the determination of the speed of light (Louis Essen); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao); and the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell).

Paddington

Paddington, LondonLondon Paddington stationPaddington Green
His elder brother, Tom, was already a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, and so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington; he qualified with an MBBS degree from the school with distinction in 1906.
Also there, in 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming first isolated penicillin, earning the award of a Nobel Prize.

Norman Heatley

Norman George HeatleyHeatley Medal and Prize
Norman Heatley suggested transferring the active ingredient of penicillin back into water by changing its acidity.
Alexander Fleming had first discovered penicillin by accident in 1928, but at that time believed it had little application.

Penicillium

Penicillium'' sp.Penicillium citriniumPenicillium fellutanum
He identified the mould as being from the genus Penicillium, and, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929.
Penicillin, a drug produced by P. chrysogenum (formerly P. notatum), was accidentally discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929, and found to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (see beta-lactams).

History of penicillin

Discoveries of anti-bacterial effects of penicillium moulds before Flemingdiscovery of penicillinStabilization and mass production of penicillin
The Scottish physician Alexander Fleming was the first to suggest that a Penicillium mold must secrete an antibacterial substance, and the first to concentrate the active substance involved, which he named penicillin, in 1928.

Amalia Fleming

Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas
After his first wife's death in 1949, Fleming married Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, a Greek colleague at St. Mary's, on 9 April 1953; she died in 1986.
She married Sir Alexander Fleming in 1953, but with his death in March 1955 she was widowed less than two years later.

Kevin Brown (historian)

Kevin Brown
According to the biography, Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotic Revolution by Kevin Brown, Alexander Fleming, in a letter to his friend and colleague Andre Gratia, described this as "A wondrous fable."
He is an authority on Alexander Fleming and the history of penicillin.

East Ayrshire

East Ayrshire CouncilEast Ayrshire council areaAyrshire
Kilmarnock Academy, situated in Elmbank Drive area of Kilmarnock, is one of only two schools in the world to have educated two Nobel laureates: Alexander Fleming and John Boyd Orr.

Antimicrobial resistance

antibiotic resistanceresistanceresistant
Fleming also discovered very early that bacteria developed antibiotic resistance whenever too little penicillin was used or when it was used for too short a period.
The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance caused by overuse of antibiotics was predicted by Alexander Fleming who said "The time may come when penicillin can be bought by anyone in the shops. Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily under-dose himself and by exposing his microbes to nonlethal quantities of the drug make them resistant."