A report on Alexander Graham Bell

Bell c. undefined 1917
Melville House, the Bells' first home in North America, now a National Historic Site of Canada
Bell, top right, providing pedagogical instruction to teachers at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes, 1871. Throughout his life, he referred to himself as "a teacher of the deaf".
Alexander Graham Bell's telephone patent drawing, March 7, 1876
The master telephone patent, 174465, March 7, 1876
An actor playing Bell in a 1926 film holds Bell's first telephone transmitter
Bell at the opening of the long-distance line from New York to Chicago in 1892
Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian ca. 1885
The Brodhead–Bell mansion, the Bell family residence in Washington, D.C., from 1882 to 1889
Alexander Graham Bell in his later years
Photophone receiver, one half of Bell's wireless optical communication system, ca. 1880
Bell's HD-4 on a test run ca. 1919
AEA Silver Dart ca. 1909
Bell statue by A. E. Cleeve Horne in front of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City. (Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford)
A quote by Alexander Graham Bell engraved in the stone wall within the Peace Chapel of the International Peace Garden (in Manitoba Canada and North Dakota, USA).
The Bell Museum, Cape Breton, part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
A.G. Bell issue of 1940
Bell, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) at the university in 1906

Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone.

- Alexander Graham Bell
Bell c. undefined 1917

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Volta Bureau in 2022

Volta Laboratory and Bureau

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Volta Bureau in 2022
The Volta Laboratory which Bell used from 1885 to 1922.
Bell's 1893 Volta Bureau building
A rare 1884 laboratory photo showing the experimental recording of voice patterns by a photographic process. (Smithsonian photo No. 44312-E)
Bell and Tainter's Photophone receiver, one part of the device to conduct optical telephony.
2 A 'G' (Graham Bell) model Graphophone being played back by a typist after it had previously recorded dictation.
Glass phonograph disk with photographic emulsion, Alexander Graham Bell, made November 17, 1885 - National Museum of American History - DSC00110
The patent drawing for an early hand-powered non-magnetic tape recorder.
2A later-model Columbia Graphophone of 1901

The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.

AEA member John Alexander Douglas McCurdy at the controls of an airplane during an aviation 'meet' near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, c. August 1911. The starboard-side of the transverse "shoulder-yoke" hinged structure for aileron control, in the general form of an upper seat support frame, is visible beside the seated pilot.

Aerial Experiment Association

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AEA member John Alexander Douglas McCurdy at the controls of an airplane during an aviation 'meet' near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, c. August 1911. The starboard-side of the transverse "shoulder-yoke" hinged structure for aileron control, in the general form of an upper seat support frame, is visible beside the seated pilot.
Aerial Experiment Association members Casey Baldwin, Tom Selfridge, Glenn Curtiss, Alexander Graham Bell, John McCurdy and Augustus Post serving as observer from Aero Club of America.

The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) was a Canadian-American aeronautical research group formed on 30 September 1907, under the leadership of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

The second and larger home, Beinn Bhreagh Hall (known locally as "The Point") was built in 1893 on the Beinn Bhreagh Estate of Alexander Graham & Mabel Bell at Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.

Beinn Bhreagh

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The second and larger home, Beinn Bhreagh Hall (known locally as "The Point") was built in 1893 on the Beinn Bhreagh Estate of Alexander Graham & Mabel Bell at Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
{{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}}'s little harbor offered the Bells opportunities for recreation, and later a shelter area for experiments in aviation and hydrofoils.
Alexander Graham Bell relaxing on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} with three of his granddaughters.
Mabel and Alexander Graham Bell were depicted in a postcard walking in front of their home, {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} Hall.
Red Head Point and the peninsula of {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} can be seen across the bay from the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia in a 1906 postcard.
The town of Baddeck can be seen from one of the lookouts on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} in a postcard from the 1920s.

Beinn Bhreagh is the name of the former estate of Alexander Graham Bell, in Victoria County, Nova Scotia.

Hubbard c. 1917

Mabel Gardiner Hubbard

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American businesswoman, and the daughter of Boston lawyer Gardiner Green Hubbard.

American businesswoman, and the daughter of Boston lawyer Gardiner Green Hubbard.

Hubbard c. 1917
Mabel Hubbard Gardiner Bell as a girl, ca. 1860
Mabel Gardiner Hubbard with her husband Alexander Graham Bell and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian (1885).
The Brodhead-Bell-Morton Mansion, the Bells' home from 1882–1889, in Washington, D.C., as it appeared in 2008.
The Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, propelled the Bells to international fame.

As the wife of Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the first practical telephone, she took the married name Mabel Bell.

An old rotary dial telephone

Telephone

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Telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

Telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

An old rotary dial telephone
AT&T push button telephone made by Western Electric, model 2500 DMG black, 1980
Alexander Graham Bell's Telephone Patent Drawing
Replica of the telettrofono, invented by Antonio Meucci and credited by several sources as the first telephone.
Bell placing the first New York to Chicago telephone call in 1892
Reis's telephone
Bell's first telephone transmitter, ca. 1876, reenacted 50 years later
Acoustic telephone ad, The Consolidated Telephone Co., Jersey City, New Jersey, 1886
1896 telephone from Sweden
Wooden wall telephone with a hand-cranked magneto generator
An IP desktop telephone attached to a computer network, with touch-tone dialing
Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007
Ericsson DBH 1001 (ca. 1931), the first combined telephone made with a Bakelite housing and handset.
Telephone used by American soldiers (WWII, Minalin, Pampanga, Philippines)
Modern sound-powered emergency telephone
One type of mobile phone, called a cell phone

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice at a second device.

A Bell System logo (called the Blue Bell), used from 1889 to 1900. The Bell Telephone Company and its successors created the Bell System and drove its expansion.

Bell Telephone Company

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A Bell System logo (called the Blue Bell), used from 1889 to 1900. The Bell Telephone Company and its successors created the Bell System and drove its expansion.
The master telephone patent, 174465, granted March 7, 1876
Gardiner Hubbard, first president and a trustee of the Bell Telephone Company, and father-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell
The Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, brought Bell international attention.
Alexander Graham Bell ceremonially inaugurating the first New York-to-Chicago telephone line in 1892
The Bell Telephone Memorial, commemorating the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. The monument, paid by public subscription and sculpted by W.S. Allward, was dedicated by the Governor General of Canada, Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire with Dr. Bell in The Telephone City's Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in 1917.

The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company – the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

"Casey" Baldwin at Ridley College, circa 1900

Frederick Walker Baldwin

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"Casey" Baldwin at Ridley College, circa 1900
Aerial Experiment Association. Casey (second from right), Bell (centre), McCurdy, Curtis, and Selfridge

Frederick Walker Baldwin (January 2, 1882 – August 7, 1948), also known as Casey Baldwin, paternal grandson of Canadian reform leader Robert Baldwin, was a hydrofoil and aviation pioneer and partner of the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

A historical plaque on the side of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C. which marks one of the points from which the photophone was demonstrated

Photophone

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Telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light.

Telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light.

A historical plaque on the side of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C. which marks one of the points from which the photophone was demonstrated
A diagram from one of Bell's 1880 papers
A photophone receiver and headset, one half of Bell and Tainter's optical telecommunication system of 1880
Illustration of a photophone transmitter, showing the path of reflected sunlight, before and after being modulated
Illustration of a photophone receiver, depicting the conversion of modulated light to sound, as well as its electrical power source (P)
Ernst Ruhmer at his "photo-electric" optical telephone system station. (1905)

It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C. Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association, created and financed by Bell.

Hubbard in 1875

Gardiner Greene Hubbard

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American lawyer, financier, and community leader.

American lawyer, financier, and community leader.

Hubbard in 1875
Hubbard and his wife, Gertrude, in the 1890s
1947 photograph of Bell descendants with statue of Bell

One of his daughters, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, married Alexander Graham Bell.

Edison, c. 1922

Thomas Edison

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American inventor and businessman.

American inventor and businessman.

Edison, c. 1922
Edison as a boy, 1861
Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, reconstructed at Greenfield Village at Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan
Photograph of Edison with his phonograph (2nd model), taken in Mathew Brady's Washington, D.C. studio in April 1878
Thomas Edison's first successful model of light bulb, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879
U.S. Patent #223898: Electric-Lamp, issued January 27, 1880
The Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's new steamship, the Columbia, was the first commercial application for Edison's incandescent light bulb in 1880.
Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as in this picture from the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition.
Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, Primary Battery section, 1915
Share of the Edison Storage Battery Company, issued October 19, 1903
Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Harvey Firestone, respectively. Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929
Mina Miller Edison in 1906
Portrait of Edison by Abraham Archibald Anderson (1890), National Portrait Gallery
Thomas Edison commemorative stamp, issued on the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1947
Statue of young Thomas Edison by the railroad tracks in Port Huron, Michigan. The Blue Water Bridge can be seen in the background.
Edison in 1915

Although Edison obtained a patent for the phonograph in 1878, he did little to develop it until Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Charles Tainter produced a phonograph-like device in the 1880s that used wax-coated cardboard cylinders.