Alexander Mackenzie (explorer)

Alexander MackenzieSir Alexander MackenzieMacKenzieAlexander MacKenzie HighwayAlexander Mackenzie,Alexander McKenzieSir Alexander Mackenzie the explorer
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (or MacKenzie, Alasdair MacCoinnich; 1764 – 12 March 1820) was a Scottish explorer known for accomplishing the first east to west crossing of America north of Mexico in 1793, which preceded the more famous Lewis and Clark Expedition by 12 years.wikipedia
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Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and ClarkLewis & ClarkLewis & Clark Expedition
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (or MacKenzie, Alasdair MacCoinnich; 1764 – 12 March 1820) was a Scottish explorer known for accomplishing the first east to west crossing of America north of Mexico in 1793, which preceded the more famous Lewis and Clark Expedition by 12 years.
Alexander Mackenzie had already charted a route in his quest for the Pacific, following the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Ocean in 1789.

North West Company

XY CompanyNorthwest CompanyNorthwest Fur Company
In 1787, the company merged with the North West Company.
In 1787 the North West Company merged with a rival organization, Gregory, McLeod and Co., which brought several more able partners in, including John Gregory, Alexander Mackenzie, and his cousin Roderick Mackenzie.

Lake Athabasca

AthabascaLake AthabaskaAthabasca Lake
On behalf of the North West Company, Mackenzie traveled to Lake Athabasca where, in 1788, he was one of the founders of Fort Chipewyan.
Prior to 1789, Sir Alexander Mackenzie explored the lake.

Mackenzie River

MackenzieMackenzie DeltaMackenzie Valley
The Mackenzie River is named after him, the longest river system in Canada and the second longest in North America. Acting on this information, he set out by canoe on the river known to the local Dene First Nations people as the Dehcho, (Mackenzie River) on 3 July 1789, following it to its mouth in the hope of finding the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. The Mackenzie River is named for him, as is the municipality of Mackenzie, British Columbia, and the Mackenzie Mountains, a mountain range in northern Canada.
Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled the river in the hope it would lead to the Pacific Ocean, but instead reached its mouth on the Arctic Ocean on 14 July 1789.

Dene

Dene NationDenéDene Tha
Acting on this information, he set out by canoe on the river known to the local Dene First Nations people as the Dehcho, (Mackenzie River) on 3 July 1789, following it to its mouth in the hope of finding the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean.
Alexander Mackenzie described aspects of a number of northern Dené cultures in the late eighteenth century in his journal of his voyage down the Mackenzie River.

Peace River

Peaceone casePeace Pass
Accompanied by two native guides (one named Cancre), his cousin, Alexander MacKay, six Canadian voyageurs (Joseph Landry, Charles Ducette, Francois Beaulieux, Baptiste Bisson, Francois Courtois, Jacques Beauchamp) and a dog simply referred to as "our dog", Mackenzie left Fort Chipewyan on 10 October 1792, and traveled via the Pine River to the Peace River.
In 1792 and 1793, the explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled up the river to the Continental Divide.

Stornoway

StornawayArnish yardStornoway, Na h-Eileanan Siar
Mackenzie was born in Luskentyre House in Stornoway on Lewis.

Isle of Lewis

LewisBreasclete Primary SchoolIsles of Lewis
Mackenzie was born in Luskentyre House in Stornoway on Lewis.

Northwest Passage

North-West PassageNorth West PassageNorthwestern Passages
Acting on this information, he set out by canoe on the river known to the local Dene First Nations people as the Dehcho, (Mackenzie River) on 3 July 1789, following it to its mouth in the hope of finding the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean.
This conclusion was supported by the evidence of Alexander MacKenzie, who explored the Arctic and Pacific Oceans in 1793.

Bella Coola, British Columbia

Bella CoolaBella Coola Valleythe town of Bella Coola
He followed this advice and reached the Pacific coast on 20 July 1793, at Bella Coola, British Columbia, on North Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean. Between 1989 and 1993, the Mackenzie Bicentennial Sea-to-Sea Expeditions of Lakehead University attempted a segmented re-enactment of the journey between Montreal and Bella Coola, British Columbia, but was unable to complete the final overland 350 km Grease Trail when its First Nation owners refused permission.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie referred to it as 'Rascal's Village'.

Fort Fork

This later became known as Fort Fork.
From 1 November 1792 to 9 May 1793, Alexander Mackenzie wintered there prior to his expedition to the Pacific Ocean.

Fraser River

FraserMiddle Arm Fraser RiverNorth Arm Fraser River
He crossed the Great Divide and found the upper reaches of the Fraser River, but was warned by the local natives that the Fraser Canyon to the south was unnavigable and populated by belligerent tribes.
The upper reaches of the Fraser River were first explored by Sir Alexander Mackenzie in 1793, and fully traced by Simon Fraser in 1808, who confirmed that it was not connected with the Columbia River.

North Bentinck Arm

North
He followed this advice and reached the Pacific coast on 20 July 1793, at Bella Coola, British Columbia, on North Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean.
North Bentinck Arm is historically significant as the location where Northwest Fur Company explorer Alexander MacKenzie reached the waters of the Pacific Ocean overland from Lake Athabaska via the Peace and Fraser rivers, on 20 July, 1793.

George Simpson (HBC administrator)

George SimpsonSir George SimpsonGeorge Simpson (administrator)
Lady Mackenzie's father was a first cousin of the father of George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Simpson's father was a first cousin of Sir Alexander Mackenzie's father-in-law.

Peter Pond

He had been sent to replace Peter Pond, a partner in the North West Company.
An ambitious man with a reputation for having a violent temper, he was implicated in two murders (one of a rival trader): Although acquitted on the murder charges, the company replaced him with Alexander Mackenzie.

Mackenzie, British Columbia

MackenzieMacKenzie, BC
The Mackenzie River is named for him, as is the municipality of Mackenzie, British Columbia, and the Mackenzie Mountains, a mountain range in northern Canada.
The townsite, established by Alexandra Forest Industries (acquired by BC Forest Products in 1967) and Cattermole Timber (partnered with Jujo Paper in 1970 to create Finlay Forest Industries), was named for Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764–1820).

West Road River

West RoadBlackwaterWest Road (Blackwater) River
He was instead directed to follow a grease trail by ascending the West Road River, crossing over the Coast Mountains and descending the Bella Coola River to the sea.
It was this trail that Sir Alexander Mackenzie used in his historic overland journey west to the Pacific Ocean in 1793, traversing the river itself on his return.

George Vancouver

Captain George VancouverCaptain VancouverVancouver
He had unknowingly missed meeting George Vancouver at Bella Coola by 48 days.
The next year, 1793, he returned to British Columbia and proceeded further north, unknowingly missing the overland explorer Alexander Mackenzie by only 48 days.

Persons of National Historic Significance

Person of National Historic SignificanceNational Historic PersonNational Historic Persons
In 2016, Mackenzie was named a National Historic Person.

Dean Channel

South Bentinck ArmDeanBentinck Arm
Hemmed in by Heiltsuk war canoes, he wrote a message on a rock near the water's edge of Dean Channel, using a reddish paint made of vermilion and bear grease, and turned back east.
A side-inlet of Burke Channel, North Bentinck Arm, is noteworthy as the place where the overland expedition by fur trade explorer Alexander Mackenzie reached the sea, on July 20, 1793.

Avoch

Avoch, Highland
In 1812 Mackenzie, then aged 48, returned to Scotland, where he married 14-year-old Geddes Mackenzie, heiress of Avoch.
Intrepid Scottish-Canadian explorer Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the first European to explore the great Canadian river now known as the Mackenzie River, crossing North America twice, to the Arctic Ocean in 1789 and Pacific Ocean in 1793, retired to Avoch in 1812 where he died in 1820 and was buried in the old Avoch Parish churchyard.

Mackenzie Mountains

MackenzieLogan MountainsMackenzie Mountain Range
The Mackenzie River is named for him, as is the municipality of Mackenzie, British Columbia, and the Mackenzie Mountains, a mountain range in northern Canada.
The range is named in honour of Canada's second prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, as well as the explorer Alexander Mackenzie.

Alexander MacKenzie Heritage Trail

Grease TrailAlexander MacKenzieBlackwater Trail
Between 1989 and 1993, the Mackenzie Bicentennial Sea-to-Sea Expeditions of Lakehead University attempted a segmented re-enactment of the journey between Montreal and Bella Coola, British Columbia, but was unable to complete the final overland 350 km Grease Trail when its First Nation owners refused permission.
During his trek from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean in the late 18th century, Alexander MacKenzie was led by Nuxalk-Carrier guides, when natural obstacles in the Fraser River prevented his continued water route.

Carrier language

CarrierDakelhDakelh language
In his journal Mackenzie recorded the Carrier language for the first time.
The earliest record of the language consists of a list of 25 words recorded by Alexander MacKenzie on June 22, 1793.

Sir Alexander Mackenzie Elementary School (St. Albert)

Sir Alexander Mackenzie Elementary School
There are a number of schools in Canada named after him, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie Senior Public School in Toronto, Sir Alexander Mackenzie Elementary School in Vancouver, and Sir Alexander Mackenzie Elementary School in St. Albert.
It was named after Alexander Mackenzie, a Scottish explorer who crossed what is now Canada.