Alexander of Hales

Doctor Irrefragabilis
Alexander of Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius ; c. 1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.wikipedia
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Scholasticism

scholasticScholasticsscholastic philosophy
1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.
Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury (the "father of scholasticism" ), Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Bonaventure, and Thomas Aquinas.

Franciscans

FranciscanFranciscan OrderFriars Minor
1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.
The somewhat earlier settlements of Franciscan teachers at the universities (in Paris, for example, where Alexander of Hales was teaching) continued to develop.

John of la Rochelle

John of RupellaJean de la RochelleJohn of Rochelle
Shortly before his death, he passed his chair on to John of La Rochelle, setting the precedent for that chair to be held by a Franciscan.
He was a pupil of Alexander of Hales and was the first Franciscan to receive a bachelor's degree of theology from the University of Paris.

Sentences

Four Books of SentencesBook of SentencesSentences of Peter Lombard
He introduced the Sentences of Peter Lombard as the basic textbook for the study of theology.
Probably between 1223 and 1227, Alexander of Hales grouped the many chapters of the four books into a smaller number of "distinctions".

Halesowen

Newfield Park Primary SchoolAeducation in Halesowen
Alexander was born at Hales, Shropshire (today Halesowen, West Midlands), England, between 1180 and 1186.

Richard Rufus of Cornwall

Richard RufusRichard the SophisterRichard of Cornwall
The latter title is especially suggestive of his role in forming several Franciscans who later became influential thinkers in the faculty, among them Saint Bonaventure, John of La Rochelle, Odo Rigaldus, William of Middleton and Richard Rufus of Cornwall.
Rufus was influenced by Robert Grosseteste, Alexander of Hales, Richard Fishacre, and Johannes Philoponus, and in turn influenced Bonaventure and Franciscus Meyronnes.

Alexander Carpenter

Alexander also influenced and sometimes is confused with Alexander Carpenter, Latinized as Fabricius (fl.
This identifier also states that the work was begun in 1429, which rules out authorship by Alexander of Hales (ca. 1185-1245) which had by some scholars been considered a possibility.

Roger Bacon

BaconBacon, RogerDoctor Mirabilis
Of Alexander's Summa, which was on one occasion proclaimed by an assembly of seventy doctors to be infallible, Roger Bacon declared that, though it was as heavy as the weight of a horse, it was full of errors and displayed ignorance of physics, of metaphysics, and even of logic.
In this work Bacon criticises his contemporaries Alexander of Hales and Albertus Magnus, who were held in high repute despite having only acquired their knowledge of Aristotle at second hand during their preaching careers.

Bonaventure

St. BonaventureSaint BonaventureBonaventura
The latter title is especially suggestive of his role in forming several Franciscans who later became influential thinkers in the faculty, among them Saint Bonaventure, John of La Rochelle, Odo Rigaldus, William of Middleton and Richard Rufus of Cornwall.
He entered the Franciscan Order in 1243 and studied at the University of Paris, possibly under Alexander of Hales, and certainly under Alexander's successor, John of Rochelle.

Pope Alexander IV

Alexander IVRinaldo dei Signori di IenneRinaldo Conti di Segni
1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.

Shropshire

SalopCounty of ShropshireShropshire, England
Alexander was born at Hales, Shropshire (today Halesowen, West Midlands), England, between 1180 and 1186.

West Midlands (county)

West MidlandsWest Midlands countyCounty of West Midlands
Alexander was born at Hales, Shropshire (today Halesowen, West Midlands), England, between 1180 and 1186.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
Alexander was born at Hales, Shropshire (today Halesowen, West Midlands), England, between 1180 and 1186.

University of Paris

SorbonneParisLa Sorbonne
He studied at the University of Paris and became a master of arts sometime before 1210.

Regent master

Magister regensRegent Masters
He began to read theology in 1212 or 1213, and became a regent master in 1220 or 1221.

Peter Lombard

Peter the LombardPetrus LombardusLombard
He introduced the Sentences of Peter Lombard as the basic textbook for the study of theology.

First Council of Lyon

Council of LyonFirst Council of Lyons13th General (Ecumenical) Council
He continued to teach and to represent the University, and participated in the First Council of Lyon in the winter of 1245.

Anselm of Canterbury

AnselmSt. AnselmSt Anselm
Alexander is known for reflecting the works of several other Middle Age thinkers, especially those of Saint Anselm and Saint Augustine.

Bernard of Clairvaux

St. BernardSaint Bernard of ClairvauxSaint Bernard
He was also known to quote thinkers such as Saint Bernard and Richard of Saint-Victor.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
Alexander was fascinated by the Pseudo-Dionysian hierarchy of angels and in how their nature can be understood, given Aristotelian metaphysics.

Sacramental character

indelible markbaptismal charactercharacter indelibilis
Among the doctrines which were specially developed and, so to speak, fixed by Alexander of Hales, are the thesaurus supererogationis perfectorum (treasury of supererogatory merits) and the character indelibilis (sacramental character) of baptism, confirmation, and ordination.

Baptism

baptizedbaptisedbaptize
Among the doctrines which were specially developed and, so to speak, fixed by Alexander of Hales, are the thesaurus supererogationis perfectorum (treasury of supererogatory merits) and the character indelibilis (sacramental character) of baptism, confirmation, and ordination.

Confirmation

confirmedSacrament of Confirmationconfirmation name
Among the doctrines which were specially developed and, so to speak, fixed by Alexander of Hales, are the thesaurus supererogationis perfectorum (treasury of supererogatory merits) and the character indelibilis (sacramental character) of baptism, confirmation, and ordination.

Holy orders

ordainedordinationorders
Among the doctrines which were specially developed and, so to speak, fixed by Alexander of Hales, are the thesaurus supererogationis perfectorum (treasury of supererogatory merits) and the character indelibilis (sacramental character) of baptism, confirmation, and ordination.

Dogma

dogmaticsdogmatismdogmatic
That doctrine had been written about much earlier by Augustine of Hippo and was eventually defined a dogma by the Council of Trent.