14th-century image of a university lecture
Doctor Alexander of (H)ales by George Glover. Line engraving, mid 17th century.
Summa universae theologiae
The memorial to Roger Bacon at St Mary Major, Ilchester
A diorama of Bacon presenting one of his works to the chancellors of Paris University
A 19th-century engraving of Bacon observing the stars at Oxford
Ernest Board's portrayal of Bacon in his observatory at Merton College
A manuscript illustration of Bacon presenting one of his works to the chancellor of the University of Paris
Optic studies by Bacon
Bacon's diagram of light being refracted by a spherical container of water
"Roger Bacon discovers gunpowder", "whereby Guy Fawkes was made possible", an image from Bill Nye's Comic History of England
Friar Bacon in his study
A 19th-century etching of Bacon conducting an alchemical experiment
A portrait of Roger Bacon from a 15th-century edition of De Retardatione
The first page of the letter from Bacon to Clement IV introducing his Opus Tertium
A woodcut from Robert Greene's play displaying the brazen head pronouncing "Time is. Time was. Time is past."
"Friar Bacon's Study" in Oxford. By the late 18th century this study on Folly Bridge had become a place of pilgrimage for scientists, but the building was pulled down in 1779 to allow for road widening.
The Westgate plaque at Oxford
William Blake's visionary head of "Friar Bacon"
alt=|Spine of a 1750 edition of Opus majus
alt=|Title page of 1750 edition of Opus majus
alt=|First page of 1750 edition of Opus majus

Alexander of Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius ; c. 1185 – 21 August 1245), also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha, was a Franciscan friar, theologian and philosopher important in the development of scholasticism.

- Alexander of Hales

21st century re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition.

- Roger Bacon

The Scholastics, also known as Schoolmen, included as its main figures Anselm of Canterbury ("the father of scholasticism" ), Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Bonaventure, and Thomas Aquinas.

- Scholasticism

English scholastics Robert Grosseteste and his student Roger Bacon.

- Scholasticism

Of Alexander's Summa, which was on one occasion proclaimed by an assembly of seventy doctors to be infallible, Roger Bacon declared that, though it was as heavy as the weight of a horse, it was full of errors and displayed ignorance of physics, of metaphysics, and even of logic.

- Alexander of Hales

In this work Bacon criticises his contemporaries Alexander of Hales and Albertus Magnus, who were held in high repute despite having only acquired their knowledge of Aristotle at second hand during their preaching careers.

- Roger Bacon
14th-century image of a university lecture

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17th-century portrait of Bonaventure by French painter and friar Claude François


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17th-century portrait of Bonaventure by French painter and friar Claude François
Bonaventure's coat of arms of Cardinal Bishop of Albano
Legenda maior, 1477
St. Bonaventure receives the envoys of the Byzantine Emperor at the Second Council of Lyon.

Bonaventure (Bonaventura ; Bonaventura de Balneoregio; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian Catholic Franciscan, bishop, cardinal, scholastic theologian and philosopher.

He entered the Franciscan Order in 1243 and studied at the University of Paris, possibly under Alexander of Hales, and certainly under Alexander's successor, John of Rochelle.

This prohibition has induced modern writers to pass severe judgment upon Roger Bacon's superiors, who were assumed to be envious of Bacon's abilities.