A report on Alexander the Great and Multan

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Alexander III riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
Map of The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC, birthplace of Alexander
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
Roman medallion depicting Olympias, Alexander's mother
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Archaeological Site of Pella, Greece, Alexander's birthplace
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Battle plan from the Battle of Chaeronea
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Pausanius assassinates Philip II, Alexander's father, during his procession into the theatre
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
The Macedonian phalanx at the "Battle of the Carts" against the Thracians in 335 BC
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Map of Alexander's empire and his route
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Gérard Audran after Charles LeBrun, 'Alexander Entering Babylon,' original print first published 1675, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC.
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Alexander Cuts the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from right to left), c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Site of the Persian Gate in modern-day Iran; the road was built in the 1990s.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
Administrative document from Bactria dated to the seventh year of Alexander's reign (324 BC), bearing the first known use of the "Alexandros" form of his name, Khalili Collection of Aramaic Documents
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great found in Byblos (ca 330-300 bc.) (BnF 1998–859; 17,33g; Byblos, Price 3426b)
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.
The Phalanx Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent
Porus surrenders to Alexander
Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours
Alexander (left) and Hephaestion (right): Both were connected by a tight friendship
Alexander at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)
A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
19th-century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession, based on the description by Diodorus Siculus
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon (orange), and Kingdom of Macedon (green). Also shown are the Roman Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).
A coin of Alexander the Great struck by Balakros or his successor Menes, both former somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Alexander, when they held the position of satrap of Cilicia in the lifetime of Alexander, circa 333-327 BC. The obverse shows Heracles, ancestor of the Macedonian royal line and the reverse shows a seated Zeus Aëtophoros.
The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
Alexander Cameo by Pyrgoteles
Alexander portrayal by Lysippos
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th century BC mosaic, Pella Museum
A Roman copy of an original 3rd century BC Greek bust depicting Alexander the Great, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The Hellenistic world view: world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), using information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Dedication of Alexander the Great to Athena Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum
Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.
The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, northern Pakistan. Tokyo National Museum.
This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Alexander in a 14th-century Armenian manuscript
Alexander in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript
Alexander conquering the air. Jean Wauquelin, Les faits et conquêtes d'Alexandre le Grand, 1448–1449
Folio from the Shahnameh showing Alexander praying at the Kaaba, mid-16th century
Detail of a 16th-century Islamic painting depicting Alexander being lowered in a glass submersible
A Hellenistic bust of a young Alexander the Great, possibly from Ptolemaic Egypt, 2nd-1st century BC, now in the British Museum
A fresco depicting a hunt scene at the tomb of Philip II, Alexander's father, at the Archaeological Site of Aigai, the only known depiction of Alexander made during his lifetime, 330s BC

The ancient city was the site of the renowned Hindu Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.

- Multan

Along the way his army conquered the Malhi (in modern-day Multan) and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.

- Alexander the Great
Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic

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A 17th century portrait of Alauddin Khalji

Alauddin Khalji

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Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji or Alauddin Ghilji ((r.

Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji or Alauddin Ghilji ((r.

A 17th century portrait of Alauddin Khalji
Gold coinage of ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad (AH 695-715 / AD 1296–1316). Dar al-Islam mint. Dated AH 709 (AD 1309–10).
The army of Alaudeen on March to Deccan, a 20th-century artist's impression
Extent of the Delhi Sultanate at the time of Jalaluddin Khalji's ascension (1290)
Sultan Alau'd Din put to Flight; Women of Ranthambhor commit Jauhar, a Rajput painting from 1825
Khalji territory at its maximum extent (dark green) and territory of the Khalji tributaries (light green)
Bilingual coin
Tomb of Alauddin Khalji, Qutb complex, Delhi.
The Hauz-i-Khas
Ruined wall of Siri
Alai Darwaza
Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE.
Alauddin's Madrasa, Qutb complex, Mehrauli, which also has his tomb to the south.
The unfinished Alai Minar
Copper half Gani
Copper half Gani
Billion Gani
Silver Tanka
Silver Tanka Dar al-Islam Mint
Silver Tanka Qila Deogir Mint

This irked Arkali Khan, her elder son and the governor of Multan.

Sikander is Old Persian for 'Alexander', a title popularized by Alexander.