A report on Memphis, EgyptAlexandria and Cairo

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Alexander the Great
Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Qasr El Nil Bridge
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Lake Mariout
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Roman Amphitheater
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
Roman Pompey's Pillar
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Citadel of Qaitbay
Cairo weather observations by French savants
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Collège Saint Marc
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Borg El Arab International Airport
The interior of Ramses Station
Colossus of Rameses II
Alexandria port
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Misr Railway Station
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
An Alexandria tram
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Alexandria Stadium
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
Shalalat Gardens
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
Montaza Garden
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Alexandria Art Centre
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Alexandria Opera House
Cairo Tower at night
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Alexander the Great's statue
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Montaza Palace
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt's capital.

- Alexandria

Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the Giza pyramid complex and the ancient cities of Memphis and Heliopolis are located in its geographical area.

- Cairo

The city extends about 40 km along the northern coast of Egypt, and is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the second-largest in Egypt (after Cairo), the fourth-largest city in the Arab world, the ninth-largest city in Africa, the ninth-largest urban area in Africa, and the 79th-largest urban area by population on Earth.

- Alexandria

Its eventual downfall is believed to have been due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria.

- Memphis, Egypt

The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile.

- Memphis, Egypt

In 641 or early 642, after the surrender of Alexandria (the Egyptian capital at the time), he founded a new settlement next to the Babylon Fortress.

- Cairo
Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Egypt

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Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast.

Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest.

Nile

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Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

The Nile's drainage basin
Spring at Lake Victoria
White Nile in Uganda
Nile Delta from space
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Map of Nile tributaries in modern Sudan, showing the Yellow Nile
Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BC
An aerial view of irrigation from the Nile River supporting agriculture in Luxor, Egypt
A felucca traversing the Nile near Aswan
John Hanning Speke c. 1863. Speke was the Victorian explorer who first reached Lake Victoria in 1858, returning to establish it as the source of the Nile by 1862.
A map of the Nile c. 1911, a time when its entire primary course ran through British occupations, condominiums, colonies, and protectorates
The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches
Dhows on the Nile
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city.
Hydropower dams in the Nile (plus huge dam under construction in Ethiopia)
View of the Qasr El Nil Bridge in Cairo, with Gezira Island in the background
El Mek Nimr Bridge in Khartoum
Henry Morton Stanley in 1872. Stanley circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke's observations in 1875.
Composite satellite image of the White Nile
Village on the Nile, 1891
Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900
Marsh along the Nile
A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda
Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga
The Nile in Luxor
The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Nile in Cairo

The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Nubian Desert to Cairo and its large delta, and the river flows into the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria.

'the mouths of the front parts'), which referred specifically to the branches of the Nile transversing the Delta, and would have been pronounced ni-lo-he in the area around Memphis in the 8th century BCE.

Fustat

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The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. Though none of the original structure remains, this mosque was the first one built in Egypt, and it was around this location, at the site of the tent of the commander Amr ibn al-As, that the city of Fustat was built.
Lustreware Plate with Bird Motif, 11th century. Archaeological digs have found many kilns and ceramic fragments in Fustat, and it was likely an important production location for Islamic ceramics during the Fatimid period.
The ruins of Fustat in Old Cairo
Indian textile fragment, circa 1545 – 1645, found in Fustat. Old, discarded textile fragments are commonly found in the area, preserved in the dry climate of Egypt.

The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph.

According to legend, the location of Fustat was chosen by a bird: A dove laid an egg in the tent of 'Amr ibn al-'As (585–664), the Muslim conqueror of Egypt, just before he was to march against Alexandria in 641.

For thousands of years, the capital of Egypt was moved with different cultures through multiple locations up and down the Nile, such as Thebes and Memphis, depending on which dynasty was in power.