Alexis Lichine's classification of Bordeaux wine

Classification des Grands Crus Rouges de Bordeauxprivate classificationunofficial classification
In considering the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Alexis Lichine held the opinion that the list, some hundred years after the selection was made, no longer expressed the whole truth concerning the ranking of Bordeaux wine.wikipedia
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Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855

1855 Classification1855 Bordeaux classificationclassified
In considering the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Alexis Lichine held the opinion that the list, some hundred years after the selection was made, no longer expressed the whole truth concerning the ranking of Bordeaux wine.
Alexis Lichine, a member of the 1960 revision panel, launched a campaign to implement changes that lasted over thirty years, in the process publishing several editions of his own unofficial classification and the Alexis Lichine's Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France, in which he devoted a chapter to the subject.

Alexis Lichine

In considering the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Alexis Lichine held the opinion that the list, some hundred years after the selection was made, no longer expressed the whole truth concerning the ranking of Bordeaux wine.
Undeterred, Lichine published his own Classification des Grands Crus Rouges de Bordeaux in 1962 and made several revisions in the following years while campaigning for changes to a classification he contended was outdated.

Château Durfort-Vivens

Durfort-VivensChâteau DufortChâteau Durfort
In Alexis Lichine's classification of Bordeaux wine, which is based on subjective criteria, it is a Grand Cru (Great Growth), putting it in the third group on his list.

Château Gloria

Gloria
The estate was included in the proposal by INAO to revise the 1855 classification, and subsequently became listed in the private classification of Alexis Lichine.

Château d'Angludet

Once acquired, the vineyards were completely restructured, and the property restored, eventually prompting Alexis Lichine to publish that d'Angludet deserved a higher classification which he incorporated into his Classification des Grands Crus Rouges de Bordeaux.

Bordeaux wine

BordeauxclaretBordeaux style
In considering the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Alexis Lichine held the opinion that the list, some hundred years after the selection was made, no longer expressed the whole truth concerning the ranking of Bordeaux wine.

Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité

INAOInstitut National des Appellations d'Origineappellations
The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO) was called to arbitrate, but it became decided that the jurisdiction of INAO was too limited to resolve a matter of this complexity.

Bordeaux

Bordeaux, FranceBurdigalaBordelais
After two years of efforts, the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce and Académie des Vins de Bordeaux also became involved in the debate surrounding the reforms.

Cru Bourgeois

Cru Bourgeois SupérieurCrus BourgeoisCrus Bourgeois Exceptionnels
It was also important to identify cases where highly classified estates had become surpassed by those rated Fifth Growth or Cru Bourgeois, and addressing the 1855 classification's neglect of properties from other areas than Médoc, namely those of Graves, Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.

Médoc

MedocLandes du MédocLeft Bank
It was also important to identify cases where highly classified estates had become surpassed by those rated Fifth Growth or Cru Bourgeois, and addressing the 1855 classification's neglect of properties from other areas than Médoc, namely those of Graves, Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.

Graves (wine region)

GravesGraves AOCSauternes
It was also important to identify cases where highly classified estates had become surpassed by those rated Fifth Growth or Cru Bourgeois, and addressing the 1855 classification's neglect of properties from other areas than Médoc, namely those of Graves, Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.

Saint-Émilion AOC

Saint-ÉmilionSt-EmilionSt. Emilion
It was also important to identify cases where highly classified estates had become surpassed by those rated Fifth Growth or Cru Bourgeois, and addressing the 1855 classification's neglect of properties from other areas than Médoc, namely those of Graves, Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.

Pomerol

It was also important to identify cases where highly classified estates had become surpassed by those rated Fifth Growth or Cru Bourgeois, and addressing the 1855 classification's neglect of properties from other areas than Médoc, namely those of Graves, Saint-Émilion and Pomerol.

Classification of Graves wine

1959 Official Classification of Gravesclassification of Gravesclassifications of Graves
Choosing to adapt and expand on the ranks used in the classifications of Graves and Saint-Émilion, Lichine arrived at the categories: Outstanding Growths, Exceptional Growths, Great Growths, Superior Growths and Good Growths.

Classification of Saint-Émilion wine

1955 Official Classification of St.-ÉmilionClassified Growthformal classification in Saint-Émilion
Choosing to adapt and expand on the ranks used in the classifications of Graves and Saint-Émilion, Lichine arrived at the categories: Outstanding Growths, Exceptional Growths, Great Growths, Superior Growths and Good Growths.

Château Mouton Rothschild

Chateau Mouton RothschildMouton RothschildChâteau Mouton
Among the most visible changes was the elevation of Château Mouton Rothschild from its second growth status to Cru Hors Classe, which was the only of his suggestions ever to be realised.

Robert M. Parker Jr.

Robert ParkerRobert M. Parker, Jr.Robert M. Parker
Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

Henri Enjalbert

Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

Clive Coates

Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

Master of Wine

MWMasters of WineInstitute of Masters of Wine
Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

David Peppercorn

Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

The Liv-ex Bordeaux Classification

2009 re-calculation
Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.

London International Vintners Exchange

Liv-exLWIN
Other published classifications that attempt to revise the 1855 ranking include a top 100 ranking by Robert Parker and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert, efforts by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW), as well as a 2009 re-calculation by the British wine exchange Liv-ex.