Efficient solutions to the vehicle routing problem require tools from combinatorial optimization and integer programming.
IBM Fellow Donna Dillenberger
NACA researchers using an IBM type 704 electronic data processing machine in 1957
An IBM System/360 in use at the University of Michigan c. 1969
IBM guidance computer hardware for the Saturn V Instrument Unit
IBM inventions: (clockwise from top-left) the hard-disk drive, DRAM, the UPC bar code, and the magnetic stripe card
Pangu Plaza, one of IBM's offices in Beijing, China
Blue Gene was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2009.
IBM Q System One (2019), the first circuit-based commercial quantum computer
The Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, is one of 12 IBM research labs worldwide.
IBM Fellow Benoit Mandelbrot discusses fractal geometry, 2010.
IBM ads at John F. Kennedy International Airport, 2013
New IBM employees being welcomed to a bootcamp at IBM Austin, 2015
Employees demonstrating IBM Watson capabilities in a Jeopardy! exhibition match on campus, 2011

An IBM Fellow is an appointed position at IBM made by IBM's CEO.

- IBM Fellow

Gomory worked at IBM as a researcher and later as an executive.

- Ralph E. Gomory

In 1964 he was appointed IBM Fellow.

- Ralph E. Gomory

After reaching the mandatory retirement age of 60 for corporate officers at IBM, Gomory became president of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation in 1989.

- Ralph E. Gomory

Ralph E. Gomory (1964)

- IBM Fellow

The company's most prestigious designation is that of IBM Fellow.

- IBM

5) Ralph E. Gomory (1989–2007)

- Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

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Gerd Binnig

German physicist.

In 1978, Binnig accepted an offer from IBM to join their Zürich research group, where he worked with Heinrich Rohrer, Christoph Gerber and Edmund Weibel.

In 1987 Binnig was appointed IBM Fellow.

Leo Esaki

Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his work in electron tunneling in semiconductor materials which finally led to his invention of the Esaki diode, which exploited that phenomenon.

Leo Esaki in 1959
1N3716 Esaki diode (with 0.1" jumper for scale)
Leo Esaki works at Sony on June 27, 1959 in Tokyo, Japan

Esaki moved to the United States in 1960 and joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, where he became an IBM Fellow in 1967.

K. Alex Müller

Swiss physicist and Nobel laureate.

Alex Müller in 2001.
Müller in 2002

In 1982 he became an IBM Fellow.

At IBM his research for almost 15 years centered on SrTiO3 (strontium titanate) and related perovskite compounds.

Heinrich Rohrer

Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

Heinrich Rohrer

In 1963, he joined the IBM Research Laboratory in Rüschlikon under the direction of Ambros Speiser.

He was appointed IBM Fellow in 1986, and led the physics department of the research lab from 1986 until 1988.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.

SDSS map shown as a rainbow of colors, located within the observable Universe (the outer sphere, showing fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background). As we look out in distance, we look back in time. So, the location of these signals reveals the expansion rate of the Universe at different times in cosmic history. (2020)
Quasars acting as gravitational lenses. To find these cases of galaxy–quasar combinations acting as lenses, astronomers selected 23,000 quasar spectra from the SDSS.
Light from distant galaxies has been smeared and twisted into odd shapes, arcs, and streaks.
A simplified graphical representation of a 7-fibre bundle. MaNGA measures 17 galaxies at a time, using bundles of 19, 37, 61, 91, and 127 fibres.
LRG-4-606 is a Luminous Red Galaxy. LRG is the acronym given to a catalog of bright red galaxies found in the SDSS.

The project was named after the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed significant funding.

IBM Research

IBM Research is headquartered at the Eero Saarinen-designed Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York.
IBM Research – Almaden

IBM Research is the research and development division for IBM, an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries.

Fred Brooks (known for his book The Mythical Man-Month), Peter Brown, Larry Carter, Gregory Chaitin, John Cocke, Alan Cobham, Edgar F. Codd, Don Coppersmith, Wallace Eckert, Ronald Fagin, Horst Feistel, Jeanne Ferrante, Zvi Galil, Ralph E. Gomory, Jim Gray, Joseph Halpern, Kenneth E. Iverson, Frederick Jelinek, Reynold B. Johnson, Benoit Mandelbrot, Robert Mercer (businessman), C. Mohan, Kirsten Moselund, Michael O. Rabin, Arthur Samuel, Barbara Simons, Alfred Spector, Gardiner Tucker, Moshe Vardi, John Vlissides, Mark N. Wegman and Shmuel Winograd.

The team led by Chieko Asakawa (:ja:浅川智恵子), IBM Fellow since 2009, provided basic technology for IBM's software programs for the visually handicapped, IBM Home Page Reader in 1997 and IBM aiBrowser (:ja:aiBrowser) in 2007.

Alfred P. Sloan

American business executive in the automotive industry.

Alfred P. Sloan in 1937
Cover of Time magazine (December 27, 1926)
MIT Building E62, home of the Sloan School of Management

In 1934, he established the philanthropic, nonprofit Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Sloan Research Fellowship

The Sloan Research Fellowships are awarded annually by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation since 1955 to "provide support and recognition to early-career scientists and scholars".

Wikimedia Foundation

501(c)(3) nonprofit organization headquartered in San Francisco, California, registered as a charitable foundation under US law.

Overview of system architecture, April 2020. See server layout diagrams on Meta-Wiki.
Wikimedia Foundation servers
Financial development of the Wikimedia Foundation (in US$), 2003–2021 Black: Net assets (excluding the Wikimedia Endowment, which passed $100m in June 2021) Green: Revenue (excluding third-party donations to Wikimedia Endowment) Red: Expenses (including WMF payments to Wikimedia Endowment)
Wikimedia Foundation and chapters finance meeting 2012, Paris
Foundation staff in January 2019
Exterior view of the previous Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco headquarters at New Montgomery St in 2014
One Montgomery Tower, the building where the Wikimedia Foundation headquarters have been located since 2017
Wikimedia Foundation post-SOPA party, 2012
Gallery of Wikimedia project's icons

In March 2008, the Foundation announced what was then its largest donation yet: a three-year, US$3 million grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Adam Falk

Adam Frederick Falk is the President of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.