A report on Algae

False-color scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica
title page of Gmelin's Historia Fucorum, dated 1768
The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: A three-dimensional, multicellular thallus
Rock lichens in Ireland
Floridian coral reef
Algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan
Phytoplankton, Lake Chūzenji
Harvesting algae
Seaweed-fertilized gardens on Inisheer
Dulse, a type of edible seaweed
Algae bladder

Informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.

- Algae

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Cyanobacteria

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy via photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy via photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere. Sea spray containing marine microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, can be swept high into the atmosphere where they become aeroplankton, and can travel the globe before falling back to earth.
• Unicellular: (a) Synechocystis and (b) Synechococcus elongatus
• Non-heterocytous: (c) Arthrospira maxima,• False- or non-branching heterocytous: (f) Nostoc• True-branching heterocytous: (h) Stigonema
Outer and plasma membranes are in blue, thylakoid membranes in gold, glycogen granules in cyan, carboxysomes (C) in green, and a large dense polyphosphate granule (G) in pink
Environmental impact of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic microorganisms in aquatic systems. Different classes of photosynthetic microorganisms are found in aquatic and marine environments where they form the base of healthy food webs and participate in symbioses with other organisms. However, shifting environmental conditions can result in community dysbiosis, where the growth of opportunistic species can lead to harmful blooms and toxin production with negative consequences to human health, livestock and fish stocks. Positive interactions are indicated by arrows; negative interactions are indicated by closed circles on the ecological model.
Diagnostic Drawing: Cyanobacteria associated with tufa: Microcoleus vaginatus
(1) Cyanobacteria enter the leaf tissue through the stomata and colonize the intercellular space, forming a cyanobacterial loop.
(2) On the root surface, cyanobacteria exhibit two types of colonization pattern; in the root hair, filaments of Anabaena and Nostoc species form loose colonies, and in the restricted zone on the root surface, specific Nostoc species form cyanobacterial colonies.
(3) Co-inoculation with 2,4-D and Nostoc spp. increases para-nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. A large number of Nostoc spp. isolates colonize the root endosphere and form para-nodules.
Live cyanobionts (cyanobacterial symbionts) belonging to Ornithocercus dinoflagellate host consortium
(a) O. magnificus with numerous cyanobionts present in the upper and lower girdle lists (black arrowheads) of the cingulum termed the symbiotic chamber.
(b) O. steinii with numerous cyanobionts inhabiting the symbiotic chamber.
(c) Enlargement of the area in (b) showing two cyanobionts that are being divided by binary transverse fission (white arrows).
Light microscope view of cyanobacteria from a microbial mat
Types of cell death according to the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (upper panel; and proposed for cyanobacteria (lower panel). Cells exposed to extreme injury die in an uncontrollable manner, reflecting the loss of structural integrity. This type of cell death is called "accidental cell death" (ACD). “Regulated cell death (RCD)” is encoded by a genetic pathway that can be modulated by genetic or pharmacologic interventions. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a type of RCD that occurs as a developmental program, and has not been addressed in cyanobacteria yet. RN, regulated necrosis.
Synechococcus uses a gliding technique to move at 25 μm/s. Scale bar is about 10 µm.
Based on data: nodes (1–10) and stars representing common ancestors from Sánchez-Baracaldo et al., 2015, timing of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the Lomagundi-Jatuli Excursion, and Gunflint formation. Green lines represent freshwater lineages and blue lines represent marine lineages are based on Bayesian inference of character evolution (stochastic character mapping analyses).
Tree of Life in Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866). Note the location of the genus
Nostoc with algae and not with bacteria (kingdom "Monera")
Cyanobacteria cultured in specific media: Cyanobacteria can be helpful in agriculture as they have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in soil.
Spirulina tablets
Stromatolites left behind by cyanobacteria are the oldest known fossils of life on Earth. This fossil is one billion years old.
Oncolitic limestone formed from successive layers of calcium carbonate precipitated by cyanobacteria
Oncolites from the Late Devonian Alamo bolide impact in Nevada
{{center|Cyanobacterial remains of an annulated tubular microfossil Oscillatoriopsis longa{{hsp}}<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1111/pala.12374 |title=First record of Cyanobacteria in Cambrian Orsten deposits of Sweden |year=2018 |last1=Castellani |first1=Christopher |last2=Maas |first2=Andreas |last3=Eriksson |first3=Mats E. |last4=Haug |first4=Joachim T. |last5=Haug |first5=Carolin |last6=Waloszek |first6=Dieter |journal=Palaeontology |volume=61 |issue=6 |pages=855–880 |s2cid=134049042}}</ref>
Cyanobacteria activity turns Coatepeque Caldera lake a turquoise color
Cyanobacterial bloom near Fiji
Cyanobacteria in Lake Köyliö.

The name cyanobacteria refers to their color, giving them their other name, "blue-green algae", though modern botanists restrict the term algae to eukaryotes and do not apply it to cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotes.

Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.

Photosynthesis

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Process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.

Process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities.

Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. The carbohydrates produced are stored in or used by the plant.
Composite image showing the global distribution of photosynthesis, including both oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial vegetation. Dark red and blue-green indicate regions of high photosynthetic activity in the ocean and on land, respectively.
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis at the thylakoid membrane
The "Z scheme"
Overview of the Calvin cycle and carbon fixation
Overview of C4 carbon fixation
Plant cells with visible chloroplasts (from a moss, Plagiomnium affine)
Portrait of Jan Baptist van Helmont by Mary Beale, c.1674
Melvin Calvin works in his photosynthesis laboratory.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
Absorbance spectra of free chlorophyll a ( blue ) and b ( red ) in a solvent. The action spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modified in vivo depending on specific pigment–protein interactions.
Photorespiration

Most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs.

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss

Chloroplast

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Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Euglena, a euglenophyte, contains secondary chloroplasts from green algae.
Chlorarachnion reptans is a chlorarachniophyte. Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga.
Scanning electron micrograph of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, a haptophyte.
The photosynthetic pigments present in their chloroplasts give diatoms a greenish-brown color.
Ceratium furca, a peridinin-containing dinophyte
Karenia brevis is a fucoxanthin-containing dynophyte responsible for algal blooms called "red tides".
Dinophysis acuminata has chloroplasts taken from a cryptophyte.
Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D-loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication."
Over time, base changes in the DNA sequence can arise from deamination mutations. When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A --> G base change.
Transmission electron microscope image of a chloroplast. Grana of thylakoids and their connecting lamellae are clearly visible.
Instead of an intermembrane space, glaucophyte algae have a peptidoglycan wall between their inner and outer chloroplast membranes.
Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large parallel sheets of stromal thylakoids and adjacent right-handed helices by left-handed helical structures. (Based on ).
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A chloroplast is a type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Eukaryote

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

The endomembrane system and its components
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion
Longitudinal section through the flagellum of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Fungal Hyphae cells: 1 – hyphal wall, 2 – septum, 3 – mitochondrion, 4 – vacuole, 5 – ergosterol crystal, 6 – ribosome, 7 – nucleus, 8 – endoplasmic reticulum, 9 – lipid body, 10 – plasma membrane, 11 – spitzenkörper, 12 – Golgi apparatus
This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex. If each individual were to contribute the same number of offspring (two), (a) the sexual population remains the same size each generation, where the (b) asexual population doubles in size each generation.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing a view of the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships – the Opisthokonta group includes both animals (Metazoa) and fungi, plants (Plantae) are placed in Archaeplastida.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species (except for Excavata), together with a tree showing possible relationships between the groups
The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis
Phylogenetic tree showing a possible relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life; eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue
Eocyte tree.
Diagram of the origin of life with the Eukaryotes appearing early, not derived from Prokaryotes, as proposed by Richard Egel in 2012. This view implies that the UCA was relatively large and complex.

Eukaryotic cells typically contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus; and chloroplasts can be found in plants and algae.

Red algae

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Rhodophyta (red algae)
Cyanidium sp. (Cyanidiophyceae)
Porphyra sp., haploid and diploid (Bangiophyceae)
Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae: Gigartinales)
Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae: Gracilariales)
Corallina officinalis sp. (Florideophyceae: Corallinales)
Laurencia sp. (Florideophyceae: Ceramiales)
Some red algae are iridescent when not covered with water

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.

Protist

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Any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

Any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes
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Therefore, some protists may be more closely related to animals, plants, or fungi than they are to other protists; however, like the groups algae, invertebrates, and protozoans, the biological category protist is used for convenience.

Plant

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Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Green algae from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904.
A variaty of fungi species
Dicksonia antarctica, a species of tree fern
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Range of pangaea glossopteris.
The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
There is no photosynthesis in deciduous leaves in autumn.
Plant cell structure
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Mechanical harvest of oats.
Melocactus plants being used as medicine.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
A rose espalier at Niedernhall in Germany.
Capitals of ancient Egyptian columns decorated to resemble papyrus plants. (at Luxor, Egypt)
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) was a pioneering cytogeneticist who used maize (corn) to study the mechanism of inheritance of traits.
Musk Thistle are invasive species in texas.

Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fungi; however, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

A Caenorhabditis elegans stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells

Multicellular organism

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Organism that consists of more than one cell, in contrast to a unicellular organism.

Organism that consists of more than one cell, in contrast to a unicellular organism.

A Caenorhabditis elegans stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells
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All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium.

Brown algae

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Two specimens of Laminaria hyperborea, each showing the rootlike holdfast at lower left, a divided blade at upper right, and a stemlike stipe connecting the blade to the holdfast.
Species like Fucus vesiculosus produce numerous gas-filled pneumatocysts (air bladders) to increase buoyancy.
Growth in Dictyota dichotoma occurs at each frond tip, where new cells are produced.
The life cycle of a representative species Laminaria. Most Brown Algae follow this form of sexual reproduction.
A closeup of a Fucus's conceptacle, showing the gametes coming together to form a fertilized zygote.
Saccharina latissima on a beach.

Brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.

Plant cells with visible chloroplasts.

Plastid

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Plant cells with visible chloroplasts.
Plastid types
Leucoplasts in plant cells.
There is an illustration of stages depicted by the diagram mentioned above in which it is shown inter-conversion of Plastids

The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.