Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River.

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger
Map of the Songhai Empire, overlaid over modern boundaries
The Grand Mosque of Agadez
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterised by good relations with the West and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
Ali Saibou, President 1987–93, helped oversee the transition from military to civilian rule
A Tuareg rebel fighter in northern Niger during the Second Tuareg Rebellion, 2008
A map of Niger
Niger map of Köppen climate classification
An elephant in the W National Park
Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris
Administrative divisions of Niger
A proportional representation of Niger exports, 2019
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub
Niamey at night
Dolé Market
Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos
Small mosque in Filingue
A primary classroom in Niger
Maradi Reference Hospital
Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder
A traditional home in Zinder
Participants in the Guérewol perform the Guérewol dance, 1997.

Niger is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.


Algiers by Antonio Salamanca, circa 1540, published in Civitates Orbis Terrarum
Abraham Duquesne delivering Christian captives in Algiers after the bombing in 1683.
Historic map of Algiers by Piri Reis
The bombardment of Algiers by Lord Exmouth, August 1816, painted by Thomas Luny
Ornate Ottoman cannon found in Algiers on 8 October 1581 by Ca'fer el-Mu'allim. Length: 385 cm, cal:178 mm, weight: 2910 kg, stone projectile. Seized by France during the invasion of Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris.
Algiers depot and station grounds of Algerian Railway, 1894
City and harbour of Algiers, c. 1921
Notre Dame d'Afrique, built by European settlers in 1872
Astronautical view of Algiers
Algiers waterfront
Cosmopolitan Algiers
The Ketchaoua Mosque
The Monument of the Martyrs (Maquam E’chahid)
Grand Post Office
The El Jedid mosque at the Place des Martyrs
Ministry of Finance of Algeria
Air Algérie head office in Place Audin near the University of Algiers, in Alger-Centre
Panorama of the city as seen from Bologhine district
Public transport of Algiers
Various means of transport in Algiers
The Battle of Algiers (1966), Italian-Algerian movie by Gillo Pontecorvo.

Algiers (الجزائر; ; Alger, ) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.


Map of Numidia at its greatest extent
The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub photographed in 2000
Map of Numidia at around 220 BC
Northern Africa under Roman rule
The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
Mausoleum of Thugga

Numidia (Berber: Inumiden; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco.

Vandal Kingdom

Established by the Germanic Vandal people under Gaiseric.

Greatest extent of the Vandal Kingdom c. undefined 476
A 16th century perception of the Vandals, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Greatest extent of the Vandal Kingdom c. undefined 476
View from the Gibraltar strait to North Africa where the Vandals crossed into Africa.
Routes taken by Vandal invaders during the Migration Period, 5th century AD
The location of Carthage, the Vandal capital.
Sack of Rome, by Karl Briullov.
Map of the operations of the Vandalic War.

They advanced eastward, conquering the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

Western Sahara

Disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa.

Intermittent lake Dait Um Saad
Western Sahara 1876
Spanish and French protectorates in Morocco and Spanish Sahara, 1912
System of the Moroccan Walls in Western Sahara set up in the 1980s
Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
A demonstration in Madrid for the independence of Western Sahara
A MINURSO car (left), and a post of the Polisario Front (right) in 2017 in southern Western Sahara
A Moroccan police checkpoint in the suburbs of Laayoune
A sangar (fortification) from the Western Sahara conflict. The fortification is built of rocks on top of a mesa overlooking the Grart Chwchia, Al Gada, Western Sahara. The Sangar is facing north and was probably built by the Sahrawis in the 1980s.
Sahrawi human rights defender Ali Salem Tamek in Ait Meloul Prison, Morocco
Sahrawi national police
Remains of the former Spanish barracks in Tifariti after the Moroccan air strikes in 1991
Natural products in a pharmacy
Morocco built several empty towns in Western Sahara, ready for refugees returning from Tindouf.
Sahrawi people
Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army
Two women outside a hospital emergencies at a Sahrawi refugee camps
Western Sahara in Africa
Topography of Western Sahara

Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two-thirds of the territory (including most of the Atlantic coastline—the only part of the coast outside the Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is the extreme south, including the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula) has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, and the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria.

Zirid dynasty

Zirid territory (green) at its maximum extent around the year 980
The Zirid realm (dark green) after the secession of the Hammadids (1018) and before the influx of Banu Hilal tribes (1052)
Surat Al-An'am of “The Nurse’s Quran” (مصحف الحاضنة), executed in fine Kufic script and reportedly commissioned by a nursemaid named Fatima serving an unidentified Zirid sultan in the early 11th century.
Map of the Taifa of Granada in the first half of the 11th century
<center>The ruins of Achir, a fortress founded by Ziri ibn Menad, the eponym of the Zirid dynasty</center>
<center>The Maqsurah of Al-Muizz in the Mosque of Uqba, Kairouan, produced during the reign of Al-Muizz ibn Badis</center>
<center>The Casbah of Algiers, founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri and classed by the Unesco</center>

The Zirid dynasty (الزيريون), Banu Ziri (بنو زيري), or the Zirid state (الدولة الزيرية) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.

North Africa

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Population density of Africa (2000)
Women in Tunisia (1922)
Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

Varying sources limit it to the countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World).

Idrisid dynasty

Idrisid state, around 820 CE, showing its maximal extent.
Idrisid dirham, minted at al-'Aliyah (Fes), Morocco, 840 CE. The coin features the name of Ali: a son-in-law of Muhammad, the fourth Caliph, and an ancestor of the Idrisids.

The Idrisid dynasty or Idrisids (الأدارسة al-Adārisah) were an Arab Muslim dynasty from 788 to 974, ruling most of present-day Morocco and parts of present-day western Algeria.


Desert on the African continent.

The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
The main biomes in Africa
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Sunset in Sahara
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
Sahel region of Mali
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
The Sahara today
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara

The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.


Northernmost country in Africa.

Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site
statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal barca
roman Mosaic Ulysses Bardo National Museum
Uqba ibn Nafi led the Umayyad conquest of Tunisia in the late 7th century
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535
St Louis Cathedral - Carthage - Tunisia - 1899
British tank moves through Tunis after the city was taken from Axis troops, 8 May 1943
Habib Bourguiba was the first president of Tunisia, from 1957 to 1987
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution
Köppen climate classification in Tunisia. The climate is Mediterranean towards the coast in the north, while most of the country is desert.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Soldiers of the Tunisian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Tunisia exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
Population pyramid
Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899
Tunisian students
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
City of Culture in Tunis
Abdelwahab Meddeb, a Tunisian French-language poet and novelist.
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in Tunis Theater
Headquarters of Télévision Tunisienne since March 2010
Stade Hammadi Agrebi in Radès.

It is a part of the Maghreb region of North Africa, and is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east, covering 163610 km2, with a population of 11 million.