A report on Algeria and Bedouin

Bedouin wedding procession in the Jerusalem section of the Pike at the 1904 World's Fair.
Bedouins in Sinai, 1967
Roman ruins at Djémila
A Bedouin girl in Nuweiba, Egypt (2015)
A Bedouin warrior, pictured between 1898 and 1914
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
Murder of Ma'sum Beg, the envoy of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp, by Bedouins in the Hejaz, 16th century
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Arab Christian Bedouin woman from the settled town of Kerak, Jordan, who probably was the wife of a sheikh. Braids were predominantly worn by Arab Christian Bedouin women of the tribes of Jordan.
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Palestine Exploration Fund list of Bedouin tribes living West of the River Jordan in 1875.
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Bedouin mothers carrying their children on their shoulders. Color photo taken in the late 19th century by the French photographer Félix Bonfils.
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Bedouin man in Riyadh, 1964.
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
A Bedouin family in Wahiba Sands, Oman.
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Syrian bedouin, 1893
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
Bedouin encampment in the Negev Desert
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
Bedouin soldiers in Israel Defense Forces.
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Three bedouin sheikhs, c. 1867-1876
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Rahat School
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
A Negev Bedouin man.
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
A young Bedouin lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum, Jordan
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
A fire breather at a Bedouin encampment near Marrakesh, Morocco.
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
A group of Bedouins with their tent in Libya, 1950s
Battle of Somah in 1836
Bedouins making bread in Egypt.
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
Map of the Bedouin tribes in 1908
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Bedouin shepherd in Syrian Desert
Houari Boumediene
Bedouins on horseback, 1950s
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
Galilee 1911
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
Bedouin women smoking, Galilee, 1935
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Grinding corn & bread making 1935
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
Weaving on ground loom 1930
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Ploughing (Negev) 1920
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
Coffee 1920
The People's National Assembly
Musicians 1935
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
Palestinian bedouin 1930
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
Bedouin woman, Beit She'an 1920
GDP per capita development in Algeria
Bedouin, Beit She'an, 1920
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Bedouin nomad tribes expelled from Arabia for their disruption and turbulency.

- Algeria

Eastern Hilal dialects, central Tunisia and eastern Algeria;

- Bedouin

9 related topics with Alpha


The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).


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The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco
The Qur'an is one of the most influential examples of Arabic literature

The Monoliths used the term to refer to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria.

The Banu Hilal spent almost a century in Egypt before moving to Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, and another century later some moved to Morocco, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt and with Libya.

The Berber ethnic flag


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The Berber ethnic flag
The Berber ethnic flag
Hoggar painting, Tassili n'Ajjer
An Egyptian statuette representing a Libyan Libu Berber from the reign of RamesesII (19th Dynasty) in 1279–1213 BCE. (Louvre Museum, Paris)
A faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief c. undefined 1184 to 1153 BC
Ancient Libyan delegation at Persepolis
Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus
Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).
Masinissa (c. 240), King of Numidia, Berber and Roman script
A map of Numidia
Mauretanian cavalry under Lusius Quietus fighting in the Dacian wars, from the Column of Trajan
Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1497
Tlemcen, Patio of the Zianids
Berber architecture as seen in the Grande Poste d'Alger building in Algiers
A statue of Dihya, a seventh-century female Berber religious and military leader
The Almohad Empire, a Berber empire that lasted from 1121 to 1269
Castillian ambassadors meeting Almohad caliph Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada, contemporary depiction from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Old fortress at Calatrava la Vieja. The site was used during the Muslim period from about 785 until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordova.
An old Amazigh room in Morocco
Origin and conquests of the Fatimids
The Almoravid realm at its greatest extent, c. 1120
Berber village in the High Atlas mountains of Morocco
Abd el-Krim featured in the magazine Time in 1925
Sanhaja Berber women in the 1970s
Berber village in the Atlas mountains
Areas in North Africa where Berber languages are spoken
Zinedine Zidane, born to Berber parents from Algeria (Kabyle; Berbers in France)
The mausoleum of Madghacen
Traditional Berber penannular brooch, a custom dating from the pre-Abrahamic era.
Saint Augustine
Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711
Over a period of thirty years (1325–1354), Moroccan Berber traveller Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands.
The most common traditional music instruments
The fantasia festival, 19th-century illustration
Remains of Germa, a capital of the Garamantes (first millennium BC)
Numidian tomb of Medracen (c. 200-150 BC)
Numidian mausoleum of Dougga, example of a "tower tomb" (2nd century BC)
The Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh, built by the Almohads in the 12th century
The ksar of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
Ksar Ouled Soltane, an example of a multi-level ghorfa in southern Tunisia
The Fadhloun Mosque in Djerba (Tunisia), an example of a traditional "fortified mosque"
The central mosque in Ghardaïa, an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Berber henna decoration
Detail of a traditional Berber carpet
Algerian Berber calendar
Ancient Tifinagh scripts in Algeria
Jewelry from Kabylia region, Algeria
Customized tajine
Turkey tajine
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016

Berbers or Imazighen (singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⵎⵣⵗ; أمازيغ-بربر) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and to a lesser extent Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger.

The Semitic ethnic presence in the region is mainly due to the migratory movements of Phoenicians, Jews, and Arab Bedouin Hilallianss in the 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD.

Population density of Africa (2000)

North Africa

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Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Population density of Africa (2000)
Women in Tunisia (1922)
Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

Varying sources limit it to the countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World).

In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.


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Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Archaeological site of Sabratha, Libya
Leptis Magna
The Atiq Mosque in Awjila is the oldest mosque in the Sahara.
The Siege of Tripoli in 1551 allowed the Ottomans to capture the city from the Knights of St. John.
The USS Enterprise of the Mediterranean Squadron capturing a Tripolitan Corsair during the First Barbary War, 1801
A US Navy expedition under Commodore Edward Preble engaging gunboats and fortifications in Tripoli, 1804
Omar Mukhtar was a prominent leader of Libyan resistance in Cyrenaica against Italian colonization.
Italian propaganda postcard depicting the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911.
King Idris I of the Senussi order became the first head of state of Libya in 1951.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969
Versions of the Libyan flag in modern history
The no-fly zone over Libya as well as bases and warships which were involved in the 2011 military intervention
Areas of control in the Civil War, updated 11 June 2020:
Location dot red.svg Tobruk-led Government Location dot lime.svg Government of National Accord Location dot blue.svg Petroleum Facilities Guard Location dot yellow.svg Tuareg tribes Location dot orange.svg Local forces
Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the head of the Libyan National Army, one of the main factions in the 2014 civil war.
A map of Libya
Libya map of Köppen climate classification
Libya is a predominantly desert country. Up to 90% of the land area is covered in desert.
UK Foreign Secretary William Hague with Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, November 2013
Districts of Libya since 2007
Change in per capita GDP of Libya, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Libya exports, 2019
Pivot irrigation in Kufra, southeast Cyrenaica
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.
Libyan men in Bayda.
Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi – the location of the University of Libya's first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya in 1974
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border.
Ancient Roman mosaic in Sabratha

It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

His short book inscribed a representative mix of utopian socialism and Arab nationalism with a streak of Bedouin supremacy.

A rare Arabic manuscript of the orally-transmitted epic poem about the Banu Hilal, by Hussein Al-Ulaimi, 1849 CE, origin unknown

Banu Hilal

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Confederation of Arabian tribes from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.

Confederation of Arabian tribes from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.

A rare Arabic manuscript of the orally-transmitted epic poem about the Banu Hilal, by Hussein Al-Ulaimi, 1849 CE, origin unknown
Arab tribes in 600 AD
Patrilineal genealogy table
<center>Egyptian engraving
<center>Egyptian engraving

When the Fatimid Caliphate became masters of Egypt and the founders of Cairo in 969, they hastened to confine the unruly Bedouin in the south before sending them to Central North Africa (Libya, Tunisia and Algeria).

Upon the arrival of the Turks, the Banu Hilal rose against the Ottoman Empire in the Aurès region and south Algeria.


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Westernmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

Westernmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

Ptolemy of Mauretania was the last Berber to rule the Kingdom of Mauretania prior to Roman conquest.
Roman ruins of Volubilis.
Idrisid coin in Fes, 840 AD.
al-Qarawiyyin, founded in Fes in the 9th century, was a major spiritual, literary, and intellectual center.
The empire of the Almohad dynasty at its greatest extent, circa 1212.
The Portuguese Empire was founded when Prince Henry the Navigator led the Conquest of Ceuta, which began the Portuguese presence in Morocco, lasting from 1415 to 1769.
The remains of the Saadi Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur's 16th century Badii' Palace.
The Treaty of Wad Ras after the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–1860) bankrupted Morocco's national treasury, forcing the Makhzen to take on a British loan.
Tangier's population in 1873 included 40,000 Muslims, 31,000 Europeans and 15,000 Jews.
The Proclamation of Independence of Morocco of 1944.
The Mausoleum of Mohammed V, a modern Alaouite landmark in Rabat.
Protestors in Casablanca demand that authorities honor their promises of political reform.
Toubkal, the highest peak in Northwest Africa, at 4167 m
A section of the Anti-Atlas near Tafraout
An old Cedrus atlantica tree in the Atlas range
Köppen climate types in Morocco
Landscape of the Erg Chebbi
Atlas Mountains
An adult male Barbary macaque carrying his offspring, a behaviour rarely found in other primates.
The Barbary lion
The King of Morocco, Mohammed VI.
The legislature's building in Rabat.
Mohammed VI, a FREMM multipurpose frigate of the Royal Moroccan Navy.
US Marines and Moroccan soldiers during exercise African Lion in Tan-Tan.
Morocco claims sovereignty over Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla.
Morocco annexed Western Sahara in 1975.
The administrative regions of Morocco
Boulevard des FAR (Forces Armées Royales)
Map of Morocco's exports as of 2017
The Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech.
View of the medina (old city) of Fez.
Al Boraq RGV2N2 high-speed trainset at Tanger Ville railway station in November 2018
Solar cell panels in eastern Morocco
Cannabis field at Ketama Tidighine mountain, Morocco
The interior of a mosque in Fes
Linguistic map of Morocco
Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane.
UIS Literacy Rate Morocco population above 15 years of age 1980–2015
The Kasbah of Aït Benhaddou, built by the Berbers from the 14th century onwards.
Leo Africanus.
A group of Jilala musicians in 1900
Moroccan Couscous.
Moroccan football fans

It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south.

Aita is a Bedouin musical style sung in the countryside.


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Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

In the late 6th century AD, a relatively uniform intertribal "poetic koine" distinct from the spoken vernaculars developed based on the Bedouin dialects of Najd, probably in connection with the court of al-Ḥīra.

Maghrebi Arabic, also called "Darija" spoken by about 70 million people in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. It also forms the basis of Maltese via the extinct Sicilian Arabic dialect. Maghrebi Arabic is very hard to understand for Arabic speakers from the Mashriq or Mesopotamia, the most comprehensible being Libyan Arabic and the most difficult Moroccan Arabic. The others such as Algerian Arabic can be considered in between the two in terms of difficulty.

Evolution of the Fatimid state

Fatimid Caliphate

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Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Evolution of the Fatimid state
Map of Abu Abdallah's campaigns and battles during the overthrow of the Aghlabids
Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, built by the Fatimids between 970 and 972
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, commissioned by Al-'Aziz in 990 and completed by al-Hakim in 1013 (later renovated in the 1980s by the Dawoodi Bohra)
Al-Juyushi Mosque, Cairo, overlooking the city from the Muqattam Hills
Bab al-Futuh, one of the gates of Cairo dating from Badr al-Jamali's reconstruction of the city walls (1987)
Al-Salih Tala'i Mosque in Cairo, built by Tala'i ibn Ruzzik in 1160 and originally intended to house the head of Husayn (the head ended up being interred instead at the present-day al-Hussein Mosque)
The original Fatimid-period mihrab inside the al-Azhar Mosque
Side chapel in the Hanging Church in Old Cairo, including frescoes (partly visible behind the screen here) dating from the late 12th or 13th century, before the church's later renovation
Cover page of the Leningrad Codex, a manuscript of the Hebrew Bible copied in Cairo/Fustat in the early 11th century
Entrance portal of the Great Mosque of Mahdia (10th century)
Fragment of a bowl depicting a mounted warrior, 11th century. Fatimid dynasty, found in Fustat, Egypt. Brooklyn Museum

Their military were from Kabylia in Algeria, several historians attribute the military creation/establishment and its origin to the Kutama Berbers.

He allied with the Qarmatis and with Arab Bedouin tribes in Syria and invaded Palestine in the spring of 977.

Abu Zayd al-Hilali (right) chopping off the head of Hegazi ibn Rafe'

Sirat Bani Hilal

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Arabic epic

Arabic epic

Abu Zayd al-Hilali (right) chopping off the head of Hegazi ibn Rafe'
Egyptian engraving
Dhiab bin Ghanim against Zanati Khalifa

that recounts the tale of the journey of the Bedouin tribe of the Banu Hilal from Najd in Arabia to Tunisia and Algeria via Egypt.