A report on Algeria and Constantine, Algeria

General view, Constantine, 1899
Roman ruins at Djémila
Siege of Constantine in October 1837
Constantine, canyon & bridges
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
US Army map of Constantine during the Second World War
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
Constantine, Airport
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Constantine, Tram under the snow
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Bridge El-Kantara, earliest photo, 1856 by John Beasley Greene
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Bridge of the Falls
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Sidi M'Cid Bridge
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Sidi Rached Bridge
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
El-Kantara Bridge
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
Constantine:Old city
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Constantine (قسنطينة '), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina''', is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.

- Constantine, Algeria

The invasion kept going, and in 1057 the Arabs spread on the high plains of Constantine where they encircled the Qalaa of Banu Hammad (capital of the Hammadid Emirate), as they had done in Kairouan a few decades ago.

- Algeria

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Hafsid dynasty

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Realm of the Hafsid dynasty in 1400 (orange)
Coin of the Hafsids with ornamental Kufic, Bougie, Algeria, 1249–1276.
The minaret of the Kasbah Mosque of Tunis, built at the beginning of the Hafsid period in the early 1230s
Early red flag with white or yellow crescent of the 14th century, reported by Marino Sanudo (ca. 1321), Angelino Dulcerta (1339) and the Catalan Atlas (1385)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hubert-herald.nl/Tunisie.htm|title=TunisiaArms}}</ref>
White with blue crescent according to Jacobo Russo, 1550 (last period of the kingdom)

The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.

In 1229 Ifriqiyas governor, Abu Zakariya returned to Tunis after conquering Constantine and Béjaïa the same year and declared independence.

Tunisia

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Northernmost country in Africa.

Northernmost country in Africa.

Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site
statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal barca
roman Mosaic Ulysses Bardo National Museum
Uqba ibn Nafi led the Umayyad conquest of Tunisia in the late 7th century
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535
St Louis Cathedral - Carthage - Tunisia - 1899
British tank moves through Tunis after the city was taken from Axis troops, 8 May 1943
Habib Bourguiba was the first president of Tunisia, from 1957 to 1987
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution
Köppen climate classification in Tunisia. The climate is Mediterranean towards the coast in the north, while most of the country is desert.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Soldiers of the Tunisian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Tunisia exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
Population pyramid
Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899
Tunisian students
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
City of Culture in Tunis
Abdelwahab Meddeb, a Tunisian French-language poet and novelist.
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in Tunis Theater
Headquarters of Télévision Tunisienne since March 2010
Stade Hammadi Agrebi in Radès.
Carthaginian Armor of the Ksour Essef 3rd century BC
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Tunisian military force.

It is a part of the Maghreb region of North Africa, and is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east, covering 163610 km2, with a population of 12.1 million.

Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine) and to the east (Tripoli).

Numidia

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Map of Numidia at its greatest extent
The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub photographed in 2000
Map of Numidia at around 220 BC
Northern Africa under Roman rule
The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
Mausoleum of Thugga
Madghacen

Numidia (Berber: Inumiden; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially comprising the territory that now makes up modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco.

Subsequently Emperor Constantine the Great reunited the two provinces in a single one, administered from Cirta, which was now renamed Constantina (modern Constantine) in his honour.

Coin of King Massinissa

Masinissa

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Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Coin of King Massinissa
Massinissa of Numidia
Scipio at the deathbed of Masinissa
Central wall depicting Sophonisba requesting help from Massinissa
Scipio Africanus freeing Massiva

His tomb in Cirta (modern-day Constantine in Algeria) bears the inscription MSNSN, read Mas'n'sen, or "Their Lord".

At the start of the Second Punic War, Masinissa fought for Carthage against Syphax, the king of the Masaesyli of western Numidia (present day Algeria), who had allied himself with the Romans.

Sétif

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Algerian city and the capital of the Sétif Province.

Algerian city and the capital of the Sétif Province.

The Conquest of India by Dionysus at the archaeological museum of Sétif.
Byzantine fortress west wall.
Detail of the Tabula Peutingeriana map (4th century) showing Sitifi Colonia (Sétif)
Sétif during colonization
Downtown Sétif

It is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.

It is an inner city, situated in the eastern side of Algeria, at 270 kilometers east of Algiers, at 131 km west of Constantine, in the Hautes Plaines region south of Béjaia and Jijel.

The American Commander William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800

Dey

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The American Commander William Bainbridge paying tribute to the Dey, circa 1800

Dey (Arabic: داي), from the Turkish honorific title dayı, literally meaning uncle, was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli, and Tunis under the Ottoman Empire from 1671 onwards.

The realm of the dey of Alger (Algiers) was divided into three provinces (Constantine, Titteri and Mascara), each of which was administered by a bey (باي) whom he appointed.

A prominent Algerian thinker.

Malek Bennabi

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Algerian writer and philosopher, who wrote about human society, particularly Muslim society with a focus on the reasons behind the fall of Muslim civilization.

Algerian writer and philosopher, who wrote about human society, particularly Muslim society with a focus on the reasons behind the fall of Muslim civilization.

A prominent Algerian thinker.

Bennabi was born in Constantine, Algeria in 1905.

In 1963, after returning to Algeria, he witnessed modern scientific inventions and technological creations unfold before his eyes.