A report on Algeria and French colonial empire

French colonial empire 17th century-20th century
Roman ruins at Djémila
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires
The French colonial empire in the Americas comprised New France (including Canada and Louisiana), French West Indies (including Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Tobago and other islands) and French Guiana.
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
French North America was known as 'Nouvelle France' or New France.
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
1767 Louis XV Colonies Françoises (West Indies) 12 Diniers copper Sous (w/1793 "RF" counterstamp)
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857 by Ernest Francis Vacherot
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
French and other European settlements in Colonial India
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
The British invasion of Martinique in 1809
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Animated map showing the growth and decline of the first and second French colonial empires
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Queen Pōmare IV in 1860. Tahiti was made a French protectorate in 1842, and annexed as a colony of France in 1880.
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
The last photograph of Napoleon III (1872)
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
French trading post on Gorée, an island offshore of Senegal
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The French expedition in Syria led by General Beaufort d'Hautpoul, landing in Beyrouth on 16 August 1860
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
The French conquest of Algeria
Hayreddin Barbarossa
The Presidential Palace of Vietnam, in Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of Indochina.
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
The captured rebels of Raiatea, 1897
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
French colonial troops, led by Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds, a Senegalese mulatto, conquered and annexed Dahomey in 1894.
Battle of Somah in 1836
The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allies by 1943. [[:File:Vichy france map.png|Legend.]]
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
Captured French soldiers from Dien Bien Phu, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Capture of Saigon by Charles Rigault de Genouilly on 18 February 1859, painted by Antoine Morel-Fatio
Houari Boumediene
Napoleon III receiving the Siamese embassy at the palace of Fontainebleau in 1864
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
Map of the first (green) and second (blue) French colonial empires
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Algeria produced and is linked to many civilizations, empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Rustamids, Idrisids, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Zayyanids, Spaniards, Ottomans and the French colonial empire.

- Algeria

This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil Missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively.

- French colonial empire

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Vichy France

2 links

Common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

Common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

The French State in 1942:
 style = padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
France under German occupation (Germans occupied the southern zone starting in November 1942—Operation Case Anton). The yellow zone was under Italian administration.
The French State in 1942:
 style = padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
Personal flag of Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de l'État Français)
The French State in 1942:
 style = padding-left: 0.6em; text-align: left;
Propaganda poster for the Vichy Regime's Révolution nationale program, 1942
French prisoners of war are marched off under German guard, 1940
Philippe Pétain meeting Hitler in October 1940
French colonial prisoner in German captivity, 1940
Pierre Laval with the head of German police units in France, SS-Gruppenführer Carl Oberg
Pierre Laval and Philippe Pétain in the Frank Capra documentary film Divide and Conquer (1943)
1943 1 Franc coin. Front: "French State". Back: "Work Family Homeland".
A propaganda poster in Hanoi.
Memorial to the 1,297 French seamen who died during the British bombardment of their ships at Mers El Kebir
Japanese troops entering Saigon in 1941
Map of French Somaliland, 1922
Henri Giraud and de Gaulle during the Casablanca Conference in January 1943
23 January 1943: German-Vichy French meeting in Marseilles. SS-Sturmbannführer Bernhard Griese, Marcel Lemoine (regional préfet), (Commander of Marseilles Sicherheitspolizei); laughing: René Bousquet (General Secretary of the French National Police created in 1941), creator of the GMRs; behind: Louis Darquier de Pellepoix (Commissioner for Jewish Affairs).
French Police registering new inmates at the Pithiviers camp
French Milice guarding detainees
Poster above the entrance of an anti-semitic exhibition called "The Jew and France"
Two Jewish women in occupied Paris wearing yellow badges before the mass arrests
Commemorative plaque to the victims held in the Vel' d'Hiv after the 16–17 July 1942 roundup of Jews in Paris
Légion des Volontaires fighting with the Axis on the Eastern Front
Vichy French zinc and aluminium coins made during the war circulated in both the German–occupied zone and Vichy's unoccupied zone.
Progressive end of the Vichy regime
A recruitment poster for the Milice. The text says "Against Communism / French Militia / Secretary-General Joseph Darnand".
The Sigmaringen operation was based in the city's ancient castle.
Liberation of France, 1944
Paris 1944: Women accused of collaboration with Nazis are paraded through the streets; they often had their hair cut off as a form of humiliation.

Though Paris was ostensibly its capital, the Vichy government established itself in the resort town of Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre), where it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as its colonies.

Operation Torch was the American and British invasion of French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), started on 8 November 1942, with landings in Morocco and Algeria.

French Algeria

2 links

Chronological map of French Algeria's evolution
Purchase of Christian slaves by French monks in Algiers in 1662
The French colonial empire in 1920
The attack of Admiral Duperré during the take-over of Algiers in 1830
Fighting at the gates of Algiers in 1830
Ornate Ottoman cannon, length: 385cm, cal:178mm, weight: 2910, stone projectile, founded 8 October 1581 in Algiers, seized by France at Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée, Paris
Sylvain Charles Valée
The capture of Constantine by French troops, 13 October 1837 by Horace Vernet
A print showing Fadhma N'Soumer during combat
Abd el-Kader
The Battle of Smala, 16 May 1843. Prise de la smalah d Abd-El-Kader à Taguin. 16 mai 1843, by Horace Vernet
French troops disembarking on the island of Mogador, in Essaouira bay in 1844
The siege of Laghouat (1852) during the Pacification of Algeria.
Moorish women making Arab carpets, Algiers, 1899
Arab school of embroidery, Algiers, 1899
Algerians playing chess, Algiers, 1899
Moorish coffee house, Algiers, 1899
Group of Arabs, Algiers, 1899
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857
Merchant ensign 1848–1910
Capture of the Zaatcha (1849)
1877 map of the three French departments of Alger, Oran and Constantine
The famine of Algeria in 1869
Place de la republique, Algiers, 1899
Administrative organisation between 1905 and 1955. Three départements Oran, Alger and Constantine in the north (in pink colour), and four territories Aïn-Sefra, Ghardaïa, Oasis and Touggourt in the south (in yellow). The external boundaries of the land are those between 1934 and 1962.
The Maghreb in the second half of the 19th century
Arzew inhabitants meet U.S. Army Rangers in November 1942 during Allied Operation Torch
Supporters of General Jacques Massu set barricades in Algiers in January 1960

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, was the period of French colonisation of Algeria.

Following its conquest of Ottoman-controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century, France maintained what was effectively colonial rule in the territory, though the French Constitution of 1848 made Algeria part of France, and Algeria was usually understood as such by French people, even on the Left.

Generic "black feet" emblem used by post-independence Pied-Noir associations.

Pied-Noir

1 links

Generic "black feet" emblem used by post-independence Pied-Noir associations.
Bombardment of Algeria by Admiral Duperré's forces in 1830
Zouaves embarking at Algiers for Tonkin, January 1885
Four children in a wagon pulled by two donkeys, circa 1905. The first Pieds-Noirs were the French Army of Africa personnel's children.
Map of French Algeria
Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built by the French Pieds-Noirs in Algeria
Non-Muslim proportion of population in 1954 by département (post-1957 administrative division). White: less than 2% non-Muslim; light blue: 2-5%; mid-blue: 5-10%; dark blue: 10-30%; black: greater than 30% non-Muslim population
An Algerian Jew, c. late 19th-early 20th century
Algiers: Muslim quarters (green), European quarters (brown), FLN attacks
Minister of Justice Adolphe Crémieux's decrees of October 24, 1870 granted automatic French citizenship to French Algeria's Sephardic Jews. In contrast, Muslims and 3-year resident European foreigners had to have reached the age of majority (21) to apply.
Albert Camus in 1957
Flag proposed by Jean-Paul Gavino<ref>{{Cite web |title=fotw |url=https://www.fotw.info/flags/fr%7Ddzfr.html}}</ref>
Tricolore flag with two black feet<ref>{{Cite web |title=fotw |url=https://www.fotw.info/flags/fr%7Ddzfr.html}}</ref>
Flag of the USDIFRA using pied-noir symbolism
État Pied-Noir flag to the claim sovereignty and nationhood.

The Pieds-Noirs ( Pied-Noir), are the people of French and other European descent who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962, the vast majority of whom departed for mainland France as soon as Algeria gained independence or in the months following.

For more than a century France maintained colonial rule in Algerian territory.

Syria

1 links

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
Ishqi-Mari, king of the Second Kingdom of Mari, circa 2300 BC.
Amrit Phoenician Temple
Ancient city of Palmyra before the war
Roman Theatre at Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria
Temple of Jupiter, Damascus
The ancient city of Apamea, an important commercial center and one of Syria's most prosperous cities in classical antiquity
Umayyad fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.
Syrian women, 1683
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria labelled as "Al Sham" in yellow
Armenian deportees near Aleppo during the Armenian genocide, 1915
The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s
Aleppo in 1961
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
Military situation in the Lebanese Civil War, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria
A Syrian Army soldier manning a checkpoint outside of Damascus shortly after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, 2012
Diplomatic missions of Syria
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Syria, since 1820
Aleppo soap
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010
A cove in Latakia in 2014
Oil refinery in Homs
Expressway M5 near Al-Rastan
Damascus, traditional clothing
The ethno-religious composition of Syria
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery in Saidnaya, Rif Dimashq
Damascus University headquarters in Baramkeh
UIS adult literacy rate of Syria
Dabke combines circle dance and line dancing and is widely performed at weddings and other joyous occasions.
Adunis
Aleppo International Stadium
Fattoush, a Syrian bread salad

It ultimately suffered defeat and loss of control of the entire Near East to the British Empire and French Empire.

From the Arab league, Syria continues to maintain diplomatic relations with Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen.

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

French language

0 links

Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries
Distribution of native French speakers in 6 countries in 2021
French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in lighter pink are those where 6–12% of the population speaks French at home; medium pink, 12–18%; darker pink, over 18%. French-based creole languages are not included.
Town sign in Standard Arabic and French at the entrance of Rechmaya in Lebanon
A 500-CFP franc (€4.20; US$5.00) banknote, used in French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna
Varieties of the French language in the world

Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole.

Most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast.

Population density of Africa (2000)

North Africa

0 links

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Population density of Africa (2000)
Women in Tunisia (1922)
Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

Varying sources limit it to the countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World).

After the 19th century, the imperial and colonial presence of France, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation.

Niger

0 links

Landlocked country in West Africa.

Landlocked country in West Africa.

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger
Map of the Songhai Empire, overlaid over modern boundaries
The Grand Mosque of Agadez
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterised by good relations with the West and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
Ali Saibou, President 1987–93, helped oversee the transition from military to civilian rule
A Tuareg rebel fighter in northern Niger during the Second Tuareg Rebellion, 2008
A map of Niger
Niger map of Köppen climate classification
An elephant in the W National Park
Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris
Administrative divisions of Niger
A proportional representation of Niger exports, 2019
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub
Niamey at night
Dolé Market
Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos
Small mosque in Filingue
A primary classroom in Niger
Maradi Reference Hospital
Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder
A traditional home in Zinder
Participants in the Guérewol perform the Guérewol dance, 1997.

It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Nigerien culture is marked by variation, evidence of the cultural crossroads which French colonialism formed into a unified state from the beginning of the 20th century.

Comorians protest against Mayotte referendum on becoming an overseas department of France, 2009

Decolonization

0 links

Undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories, often overseas territories.

Undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories, often overseas territories.

Comorians protest against Mayotte referendum on becoming an overseas department of France, 2009
The Chilean Declaration of Independence on 18 February 1818
Dom Pedro proclaims himself Emperor of an independent Brazil on 7 September 1822
Greek War of Independence
Russian and Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass against Turkish troops was crucial for the independence of Bulgaria.
Romanian War of Independence
Serbian War of Independence
British Empire in 1952
Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781
Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue) French colonial empires.
French poster about the "Madagascar War"
Captured French soldiers from Điện Biên Phủ, escorted by Vietnamese troops, 1954
Map of all possessions of the first and second French colonial empires.
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Socialism opened the door of liberation for colonial nations."
Manuel L. Quezón, the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (from 1935 to 1944)
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in Micronesia administered by the United States from 1947 to 1986
U.S. troops in Korea, September 1945
Portuguese Army special caçadores advancing in the African jungle in the early 1960s, during the Angolan War of Independence.
Dutch soldiers in the East Indies during the Indonesian National Revolution, 1946
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Africa – in fight for freedom".
The UN Human Development Index (HDI) is a quantitative index of development, alternative to the classic Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which some use as a proxy to define the Third World. While the GDP only calculates economic wealth, the HDI includes life expectancy, public health and literacy as fundamental factors of a good quality of life. Countries in North America, the Southern Cone, Europe, East Asia, and Oceania generally have better standards of living than countries in Central Africa, East Africa, parts of the Caribbean, and South Asia.
British decolonisation in Africa
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa all collapsed in the years after 1945
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
A Baltic exilee protest sign from the second half of the 20th century calling on U.N. to abolish Soviet colonialism in the Baltic states.
The Black Star Monument in Accra, built by Ghana's first president Kwame Nkrumah to commemorate the country's independence
Four international organizations whose membership largely follows the pattern of previous colonial empires.
Gandhi in 1947, with Lord Louis Mountbatten, Britain's last Viceroy of India, and his wife Vicereine Edwina Mountbatten.
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Congo-Léopoldville, was murdered by Belgian-supported Katangan separatists in 1961

These include the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century; of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires following World War I; of the British, French, Dutch, Portuguese, Belgian, Italian, and Japanese colonial empires following World War II; and of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War.

🇫🇷 france: Morocco and Tunisia (1956); Guinea (1958); Cameroon, Togo, Mali, Senegal, Madagascar, Benin, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Gabon and Mauritania (1960); Algeria (1962); Comoros (1975); Djibouti (1977)