A report on Algeria and Houari Boumédiène

The house where Boumediene was born in douar beni aadi
Roman ruins at Djémila
Boumediène during the Algerian War of Independence
thumb|The 1975 Algiers Agreement was signed by (left to right) the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Boumédiène, and the Iraqi vice-president Saddam Hussein
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
thumb|upright|Boumédiène in 1972
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
Boumediene with Ahmed Ben Bella in 1962.
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Houari Boumediene standing in a row with the other politicians., 1965.
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Boumediene with Cuban communist leader Fidel Castro in 1972.
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
alt=|Libyan Leader Muammar Gaddafi, Boumediene and Syrian President Hafez al-Assad in Tripoli, 1977
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Houari Boumédiène (هواري بومدين ; ALA-LC: Hawwārī Būmadyan; born Mohammed Ben Brahim Boukherouba; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) was an Algerian Nationalist, politician and army colonel who served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death in 1978.

- Houari Boumédiène

Ben Bella was overthrown in 1965 by Houari Boumédiène, his former ally and defence minister.

- Algeria

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Official portrait, 1963

Ahmed Ben Bella

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Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Official portrait, 1963
Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army.
Ben Bella with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Cuba, 1962
Egypt´s president Nasser with Tunisia's Bourguiba and Ben Bella, 1963

Ahmed Ben Bella was born in Maghnia, in the former department of Oran, western Algeria, to Moroccan parents, on 25 December 1916, during the height of the French colonial period.

This led to several disputes among his rivals in the FLN, which were quickly suppressed by Ben Bella's rapidly growing number of supporters, most notably within the armed forces, whose chief was Houari Boumédiènne.

National Liberation Front (Algeria)

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Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
National Liberation Army soldiers next to the Algerian flag

The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.

These units were later to emerge under the leadership of army commander Colonel Houari Boumediene as a powerful opposition to the political cadres of the FLN's exile government, the GPRA, and they eventually came to dominate Algerian politics.

Collage of the French war in Algeria

Algerian War

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Collage of the French war in Algeria
Battle of Somah in 1836
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857
Algerian rebel fighters in the mountains
National Liberation Army soldiers
Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Mourad Didouche, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Algiers: Muslim quarters (green), European quarters (orange), terrorist attacks
Electrified barriers along the entire length of Algeria's eastern and western borders
Barricades in Algiers, January 1960. The banner reads, "Long live Massu" (Vive Massu).
FLN female bombers
Commandos de Chasse of the 4th Zouave regiment. Zouave regiments were mostly composed of European settlers.
Young Harki in uniform, summer 1961
Ex-voto in Notre-Dame de la Garde thanking for the safe return of a son from Algeria, August 1958
French North African Operations medal, 11 January 1958
Former FLN member Saadi Yacef starred and co-produced The Battle of Algiers (1966) by Italian filmmaker Gillo Pontecorvo, which was critically acclaimed for its sense of historical authenticity and cast who had lived through the real war.

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence, and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November, was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France.

Shortly thereafter, in 1965, Bella was deposed and placed under house arrest (and later exiled) by Houari Boumédiènne, who served as president until his death in 1978.

President of Algeria

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The president of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces.

The presidency was held by a succession of FLN members; Ahmed Ben Bella, Houari Boumédienne and Chadli Bendjedid.

Flag of the FLN and the GPRA

National Liberation Army (Algeria)

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The armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front of Algeria during the Algerian War.

The armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front of Algeria during the Algerian War.

Flag of the FLN and the GPRA
NLA soldiers with a mortar
NLA soldiers
NLA soldiers eating
NLA soldiers cleaning their weapons
NLA soldiers marching
NLA soldiers in line
NLA soldiers
NLA soldiers with the Algerian flag
NLA training
NLA soldiers resting
NLA soldiers with the Yugoslav journalist Zdravko Pečar
Houari Boumediène in uniform during the Algerian War of Independence

After Algeria won its independence from France in 1962, the ALN was converted into the regular Algerian People's National Armed Forces.

During the ongoing war of independence in Algeria; Colonel Houari Boumedienne (the future President of Algeria) led the military wing of the FLN, the National Liberation Army, against the French.

1965 Algerian coup d'état

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Ahmed Ben Bella, first president of the Algerian Republic.
Houari Boumédiène, at the time Algerian Minister of Defence.

The 1965 Algerian coup d'état brought Colonel Houari Boumédiène to power as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council in Algeria.

Sand War

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The Maghreb in the second half of the 19th century

The Sand War or the Sands War (حَرْبُ الرِّمَال) was a border conflict between Algeria and Morocco in October 1963.

In January 1969, Algerian President Houari Boumediene made a state visit to Morocco and signed a treaty of friendship with Hassan's government at Ifrane.

Western Sahara

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Disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa.

Disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa.

Intermittent lake Dait Um Saad
Western Sahara 1876
Spanish and French protectorates in Morocco and Spanish Sahara, 1912
System of the Moroccan Walls in Western Sahara set up in the 1980s
Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
A demonstration in Madrid for the independence of Western Sahara
A MINURSO car (left), and a post of the Polisario Front (right) in 2017 in southern Western Sahara
A Moroccan police checkpoint in the suburbs of Laayoune
A sangar (fortification) from the Western Sahara conflict. The fortification is built of rocks on top of a mesa overlooking the Grart Chwchia, Al Gada, Western Sahara. The Sangar is facing north and was probably built by the Sahrawis in the 1980s.
Sahrawi human rights defender Ali Salem Tamek in Ait Meloul Prison, Morocco
Sahrawi national police
Remains of the former Spanish barracks in Tifariti after the Moroccan air strikes in 1991
Natural products in a pharmacy
Morocco built several empty towns in Western Sahara, ready for refugees returning from Tindouf.
Sahrawi people
Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army
Two women outside a hospital emergencies at a Sahrawi refugee camps
Western Sahara in Africa
Topography of Western Sahara

Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two-thirds of the territory (including most of the Atlantic coastline—the only part of the coast outside the Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is the extreme south, including the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula) has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, and the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria.

After arguing for a process of decolonization to be guided by the United Nations, the Algerian government under Houari Boumédiènne in 1975 committed to assisting the Polisario Front, which opposed both Moroccan and Mauritanian claims and demanded full independence of Western Sahara.