A report on Algeria and Numidia

Map of Numidia at its greatest extent
Roman ruins at Djémila
The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub photographed in 2000
Map of Numidia at around 220 BC
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Northern Africa under Roman rule
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mausoleum of Thugga
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Numidia (Berber: Inumiden; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially comprising the territory that now makes up modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco.

- Numidia

Algeria produced and is linked to many civilizations, empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Rustamids, Idrisids, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Zayyanids, Spaniards, Ottomans and the French colonial empire.

- Algeria

7 related topics with Alpha


The Berber ethnic flag


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The Berber ethnic flag
The Berber ethnic flag
Hoggar painting, Tassili n'Ajjer
An Egyptian statuette representing a Libyan Libu Berber from the reign of RamesesII (19th Dynasty) in 1279–1213 BCE. (Louvre Museum, Paris)
A faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief c. undefined 1184 to 1153 BC
Ancient Libyan delegation at Persepolis
Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus
Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).
Masinissa (c. 240), King of Numidia, Berber and Roman script
A map of Numidia
Mauretanian cavalry under Lusius Quietus fighting in the Dacian wars, from the Column of Trajan
Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1497
Tlemcen, Patio of the Zianids
Berber architecture as seen in the Grande Poste d'Alger building in Algiers
A statue of Dihya, a seventh-century female Berber religious and military leader
The Almohad Empire, a Berber empire that lasted from 1121 to 1269
Castillian ambassadors meeting Almohad caliph Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada, contemporary depiction from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Old fortress at Calatrava la Vieja. The site was used during the Muslim period from about 785 until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordova.
An old Amazigh room in Morocco
Origin and conquests of the Fatimids
The Almoravid realm at its greatest extent, c. 1120
Berber village in the High Atlas mountains of Morocco
Abd el-Krim featured in the magazine Time in 1925
Sanhaja Berber women in the 1970s
Berber village in the Atlas mountains
Areas in North Africa where Berber languages are spoken
Zinedine Zidane, born to Berber parents from Algeria (Kabyle; Berbers in France)
The mausoleum of Madghacen
Traditional Berber penannular brooch, a custom dating from the pre-Abrahamic era.
Saint Augustine
Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711
Over a period of thirty years (1325–1354), Moroccan Berber traveller Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands.
The most common traditional music instruments
The fantasia festival, 19th-century illustration
Remains of Germa, a capital of the Garamantes (first millennium BC)
Numidian tomb of Medracen (c. 200-150 BC)
Numidian mausoleum of Dougga, example of a "tower tomb" (2nd century BC)
The Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh, built by the Almohads in the 12th century
The ksar of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
Ksar Ouled Soltane, an example of a multi-level ghorfa in southern Tunisia
The Fadhloun Mosque in Djerba (Tunisia), an example of a traditional "fortified mosque"
The central mosque in Ghardaïa, an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Berber henna decoration
Detail of a traditional Berber carpet
Algerian Berber calendar
Ancient Tifinagh scripts in Algeria
Jewelry from Kabylia region, Algeria
Customized tajine
Turkey tajine
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016

Berbers or Imazighen (singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⵎⵣⵗ; أمازيغ-بربر) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and to a lesser extent Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger.

During the pre-Roman era, several successive independent states (Massylii) existed before King Masinissa unified the people of Numidia.

Coin of King Massinissa


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Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Ancient Numidian king best known for leading a federation of Massylii Berber tribes during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), ultimately uniting them into a kingdom that became a major regional power in North Africa.

Coin of King Massinissa
Massinissa of Numidia
Scipio at the deathbed of Masinissa
Central wall depicting Sophonisba requesting help from Massinissa
Scipio Africanus freeing Massiva

With the support of his erstwhile enemy, he united the eastern and western Numidian tribes and founded the Kingdom of Numidia.

At the start of the Second Punic War, Masinissa fought for Carthage against Syphax, the king of the Masaesyli of western Numidia (present day Algeria), who had allied himself with the Romans.


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Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Archaeological site of Sabratha, Libya
Leptis Magna
The Atiq Mosque in Awjila is the oldest mosque in the Sahara.
The Siege of Tripoli in 1551 allowed the Ottomans to capture the city from the Knights of St. John.
The USS Enterprise of the Mediterranean Squadron capturing a Tripolitan Corsair during the First Barbary War, 1801
A US Navy expedition under Commodore Edward Preble engaging gunboats and fortifications in Tripoli, 1804
Omar Mukhtar was a prominent leader of Libyan resistance in Cyrenaica against Italian colonization.
Italian propaganda postcard depicting the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911.
King Idris I of the Senussi order became the first head of state of Libya in 1951.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969
Versions of the Libyan flag in modern history
The no-fly zone over Libya as well as bases and warships which were involved in the 2011 military intervention
Areas of control in the Civil War, updated 11 June 2020:
Location dot red.svg Tobruk-led Government Location dot lime.svg Government of National Accord Location dot blue.svg Petroleum Facilities Guard Location dot yellow.svg Tuareg tribes Location dot orange.svg Local forces
Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the head of the Libyan National Army, one of the main factions in the 2014 civil war.
A map of Libya
Libya map of Köppen climate classification
Libya is a predominantly desert country. Up to 90% of the land area is covered in desert.
UK Foreign Secretary William Hague with Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, November 2013
Districts of Libya since 2007
Change in per capita GDP of Libya, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Libya exports, 2019
Pivot irrigation in Kufra, southeast Cyrenaica
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.
Libyan men in Bayda.
Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi – the location of the University of Libya's first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya in 1974
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border.
Ancient Roman mosaic in Sabratha

It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not immediately occupy Tripolitania (the region around Tripoli), but left it instead under control of the kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection.



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Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb.

Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb.

The tomb of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II in Tipaza, Algeria
Coin of Faustus Sulla, with the reverse depicting the Mauretanian king Bocchus I (left) offering Jugurtha (right) to Faustus' father Lucius Sulla.

It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.

The first known historical king of the Mauri, Baga, ruled during the Second Punic War of 218–201 BC. The Mauri were in close contact with Numidia.

The province of Africa within the Roman Empire

Africa (Roman province)

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Roman province on the northern African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

Roman province on the northern African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

The province of Africa within the Roman Empire
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–138 AD), showing, in northern Africa, the senatorial province of Africa Proconsularis (E. Algeria/Tunisia/Tripolitania). 1 legion deployed in 125.
Roman Province of Africa in 146 BC.
The amphitheatre of Thysdrus (modern El Djem)
Roman as of Hadrian, 136 AD. An allegory of Africa wearing an elephant headdress is depicted on the reverse.
Juba II, king of Mauretania.
Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite showing the couple in procession, detail of a vast mosaic from Cirta, Roman Africa (c. 315–325 AD, now at the Louvre)
Berber Red Slip flagons and vases, 2nd–4th centuries
A typical plain berber Red Slip dish with simple rouletted decoration, 4th century

It roughly comprised the territory of present-day Tunisia, the northeast of Algeria, and the coast of western Libya along the Gulf of Sirte.

The remaining territory was left in the domain of the Berber Numidian client king Massinissa.

Constantine, Algeria

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General view, Constantine, 1899
Siege of Constantine in October 1837
Constantine, canyon & bridges
US Army map of Constantine during the Second World War
Constantine, Airport
Constantine, Tram under the snow
Bridge El-Kantara, earliest photo, 1856 by John Beasley Greene
Bridge of the Falls
Sidi M'Cid Bridge
Sidi Rached Bridge
El-Kantara Bridge
Constantine:Old city

Constantine (قسنطينة '), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina''', is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.

The city was taken over by Numidia, the country of the Berber people, after the Carthaginians were defeated by Rome in the Third Punic War.

Hippo Regius ruins

Hippo Regius

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Hippo Regius ruins
Hippo Regius on the map of Roman Numidia, Atlas Antiquus, H. Kiepert, 1869

Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, Algeria.

To distinguish it from Hippo Diarrhytus (the modern Bizerte, in Tunisia), the Romans later referred to it as Hippo Regius ("the Royal Hippo") because it was one of the residences of the Numidian kings.