A report on Algeria and Tunis

Tunis as viewed from space
Roman ruins at Djémila
Roofs of the medina
Ruins of the Baths of Antoninus in Carthage.
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
Courtyard of Zaytuna Mosque, founded in the late 7th century by the Umayyad dynasty
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Historic map of Tunis by Piri Reis. The Walters Art Museum.
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Entry of Charles V into Tunis in 1535
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Mustapha Khaznadar, Prime Minister of Tunis from 1837 to 1873. and one of the most influential persons in modern Tunisian history.
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
View of Tunis c. 1890–1900. Zaytuna Mosque is slightly right of center.
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Urban evolution between 1890 and 1914
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Bab Suika-Suker Square in Tunis, ca. 1899
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
Extension of the city in the 1950s with the district of El Menzah
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
Kasbah Square comprising the finance ministry and the prime ministry of Tunisia
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
City Hall
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Souad Abderrahim, mayor of Tunis since 2018.
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Elderly man in Tunis
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Muslims in Tunis attend the mosque in 1899.
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
A souk shopkeeper
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Avenue Mohamed V in the financial district
Battle of Somah in 1836
Tunisia Mall
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Independence Square
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
View of the building of "Tour de la nation" in avenue Mohamed-V
Houari Boumediene
Tunis at Night
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
Avenue Habib-Bourguiba
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
Court of Dar Ben Abdallah
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Court of Dar Soulaimania, once the boarding lodge of University of Ez-Zitouna.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
Souk En Nhas with items of copper
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Walls and gates of the city in 1888
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul
The People's National Assembly
St. Louis Cathedral on the Byrsa hill at Carthage
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
Zaytuna Mosque
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
Bab el Bhar
GDP per capita development in Algeria
Bardo National Museum
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Tunis Municipal Theatre
Pipelines across Algeria
Tunis Old Tribunal
Djanet
Faculty of the Human and Social Sciences
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Higher School of Communication of Tunis
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
National Library of Tunisia
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Tunis bus
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
Tunis Light Metro
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Tunis south surb train
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Tunis-Carthage International Airport
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Radès Bridge
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
Tunis road
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Oussama Mellouli, gold medallist at the Beijing Summer Olympics and at the London Summer Olympics
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
Ibn Khaldoun-Kassus
A Bulgur-based salad
Stade Olympique de Radès
The Algeria national football team
Stade El Menzah
Palais des sports d'El Menzah
Salle Omnisport de Radès

At their peak the Zayyanid kingdom included all of Morocco as its vassal to the west and in the east reached as far as Tunis which they captured during the reign of Abu Tashfin.

- Algeria

Tunis is the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Holy Archdiocese of Carthage with jurisdiction over Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.

- Tunis

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Tunisia

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Northernmost country in Africa.

Northernmost country in Africa.

Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site
statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal barca
roman Mosaic Ulysses Bardo National Museum
Uqba ibn Nafi led the Umayyad conquest of Tunisia in the late 7th century
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535
St Louis Cathedral - Carthage - Tunisia - 1899
British tank moves through Tunis after the city was taken from Axis troops, 8 May 1943
Habib Bourguiba was the first president of Tunisia, from 1957 to 1987
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution
Köppen climate classification in Tunisia. The climate is Mediterranean towards the coast in the north, while most of the country is desert.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Soldiers of the Tunisian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Tunisia exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
Population pyramid
Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899
Tunisian students
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
City of Culture in Tunis
Abdelwahab Meddeb, a Tunisian French-language poet and novelist.
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in Tunis Theater
Headquarters of Télévision Tunisienne since March 2010
Stade Hammadi Agrebi in Radès.
Carthaginian Armor of the Ksour Essef 3rd century BC
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Tunisian military force.

It is a part of the Maghreb region of North Africa, and is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east, covering 163610 km2, with a population of 12.1 million.

Tunisia is home to Africa's northernmost point, Cape Angela; and its capital and largest city is Tunis, located on its northeastern coast, which lends the country its name.

The Roman province Africa Proconsularis (red) to which Ifriqiya corresponded and from which it derived its name

Ifriqiya

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The Roman province Africa Proconsularis (red) to which Ifriqiya corresponded and from which it derived its name
Qalaa of Banu Hammad
Zirids and Hammadids after Bedouin invasions
The "Kingdom of Africa" (Regno d'Africa) pinpointed in red

Ifriqiya (إفريقية Ifrīqya), also known as al-Maghrib al-Adna (المغرب الأدنى), was a medieval historical region comprising today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's western Libya).

The capital was briefly Carthage, then Qayrawan (Kairouan), then Mahdia, then Tunis.

Kairouan

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Capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Aghlabid Basins
Gold coin of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mahdi Billah, minted in Kairouan in 912 CE
Bab Chouhada Street in 1899
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Sidi-Uqba)
Mosque of the Barber
Kasba Hotel
180px
Trois Portes Mosque
Great Mosque in night
Remparts en flame
Kairouan Center-Ville
Souk of Kairouan
Tunisia Hotel
Piscines des Aghlabides
Salat of Tarawih in Great Mosque

Kairouan, the capital of Kairouan Governorate, lies south of Sousse, 50 km from the east coast, 75 km from Monastir and 184 km from Tunis.

After succeeding in extending their rule over all of central Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, they eventually moved east to Egypt to found Cairo making it the capital of their vast Caliphate and leaving the Zirids as their vassals in Ifriqiya.

Hafsid dynasty

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Realm of the Hafsid dynasty in 1400 (orange)
Coin of the Hafsids with ornamental Kufic, Bougie, Algeria, 1249–1276.
The minaret of the Kasbah Mosque of Tunis, built at the beginning of the Hafsid period in the early 1230s
Early red flag with white or yellow crescent of the 14th century, reported by Marino Sanudo (ca. 1321), Angelino Dulcerta (1339) and the Catalan Atlas (1385)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hubert-herald.nl/Tunisie.htm|title=TunisiaArms}}</ref>
White with blue crescent according to Jacobo Russo, 1550 (last period of the kingdom)

The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.

In 1229 Ifriqiyas governor, Abu Zakariya returned to Tunis after conquering Constantine and Béjaïa the same year and declared independence.

Zirid territory (green) at its maximum extent around the year 980

Zirid dynasty

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Zirid territory (green) at its maximum extent around the year 980
Maximum extent of Zirid control c. 980
The Zirid realm (dark green) after the secession of the Hammadids (1018) and before the influx of Banu Hilal tribes (1052)
Surat Al-An'am of “The Nurse’s Quran” (مصحف الحاضنة), executed in fine Kufic script and reportedly commissioned by a nursemaid named Fatima serving an unidentified Zirid sultan in the early 11th century.
Map of the Taifa of Granada in the first half of the 11th century
<center>The ruins of Achir, a fortress founded by Ziri ibn Menad, the eponym of the Zirid dynasty</center>
<center>The Maqsurah of Al-Muizz in the Mosque of Uqba, Kairouan, produced during the reign of Al-Muizz ibn Badis</center>
<center>The Casbah of Algiers, founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri and classed by the Unesco</center>

The Zirid dynasty (الزيريون), Banu Ziri (بنو زيري), or the Zirid state (الدولة الزيرية) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.

In Tunis, the shaykhs of the city elected Abd al-Haqq ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Khurasan (r.

Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria

Ibn Khaldun

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Bust of Ibn Khaldun in the entrance of the Kasbah of Bejaia, Algeria
Statue of Ibn Khaldoun in Tunis, Tunisia
Ibn Khaldun – Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun that is part of the collection at the Arab American National Museum (Catalog Number 2010.02). Commissioned by The Tunisian Community Center and Created by Patrick Morelli of Albany, NY in 2009. It was inspired by the statue of Ibn Khaldun erected at the Avenue Habib Bourguiba in Tunis.
Birth home of Ibn Khaldun at Tunis
The mosque in which Ibn Khaldun studied
Ibn Khaldun on the 10 Tunisian dinar bill
Ibn Khaldun Statue and Square, Mohandessin, Cairo
A Laffer Curve with a maximum revenue point at around a 70%, as estimated by Trabandt and Uhlig (2009). Laffer cites Ibn Khaldun's observation that "at the beginning of the dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments." as a predecessor.

Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun al-Hadrami, generally known as "Ibn Khaldūn" after a remote ancestor, was born in Tunis in AD 1332 (732 AH) into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent, the family's ancestor was a Hadhrami who shared kinship with Waíl ibn Hujr, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

After his return to the West, Ibn Khaldūn sought refuge with one of the Berber tribes in the west of Algeria, in the town of Qalat Ibn Salama.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

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Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

Tunisia: Sfax, Sousse, Tunis

Shekel minted by the Libyans during the war, depicting Herakles and a lion, with the legend ΛIBYΩN ("the Libyans"). Above the lion, the Phoenician letter M could stand for Mathos, a leader of the rebellion.

Mercenary War

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Mutiny by troops that were employed by Carthage at the end of the First Punic War , supported by uprisings of African settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.

Mutiny by troops that were employed by Carthage at the end of the First Punic War , supported by uprisings of African settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.

Shekel minted by the Libyans during the war, depicting Herakles and a lion, with the legend ΛIBYΩN ("the Libyans"). Above the lion, the Phoenician letter M could stand for Mathos, a leader of the rebellion.
Half shekel of Carthage. It is probably the coin mentioned by Polybius, who tells that Hamilcar's mercenaries were given a gold coin as first payment when they returned from Sicily in 241 BC.

The First Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC, and lasted for 23 years, from 264 to 241 BC. Rome still exists as the capital of Italy, while Carthage was razed by Rome in a later war; its ruins lie 16 km east of modern Tunis on the North African coast.

He extended its control to Theveste (modern Tébessa, Algeria) 300 km south-west of their capital.

Kasbah of Sfax in Tunisia

Kasbah

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Fortress, most commonly the citadel or fortified quarter of a city.

Fortress, most commonly the citadel or fortified quarter of a city.

Kasbah of Sfax in Tunisia
Telouet Kasbah in Morocco
Kasbah watchtower in the Hejazi city of Al Baha, Saudi Arabia

By extension, the term can also refer to a medina quarter, particularly in Algeria.

Examples of this include the Kasbah of Marrakesh and the Kasbah of Tunis, both founded by the Almohads, who built or redeveloped similar palace enclosures in many important cities of their empire.

Statue of Abd al Mumin in Tlemcen, Algeria

Abd al-Mu'min

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Abd al Mu'min (c.

Abd al Mu'min (c.

Statue of Abd al Mumin in Tlemcen, Algeria

Abd al-Mu'min put his predecessor's doctrine of Almohadism into practice, defeated the Almoravids in present-day Morocco, and extended his rule across Al-Andalus (on the Iberian Peninsula) and as far as Tunis in Ifriqiya (present-day Tunisia), thus bringing the Maghreb in North Africa and Al-Andalus in Europe under one creed and one government.

He is considered as a national hero in Algeria.