A report on Algeria

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
Djanet
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Ancient Libyco-Berber inscriptions in Zagora, Morocco

Berber languages

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The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, Thamazight;, , ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, Thamazight;, , ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

Ancient Libyco-Berber inscriptions in Zagora, Morocco
Percentage of Berber speakers in Morocco at the 2004 census
Map of Berber-speaking areas in Morocco
Shenwa language in the central-western part of Algeria
A diagram depicting one understanding of the classification of Berber languages
Modern Berber branches:Western Berber:Zenaga languageNorthern Berber:Atlas languages
Zenati languages
Kabyle languageTuareg:Tuareg languagesEastern Berber:Siwa language

Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso and Mauritania and in the Siwa Oasis of Egypt.

Mauritania

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Sovereign state in Northwest Africa.

Sovereign state in Northwest Africa.

The Portuguese Empire ruled Arguin (Arguim) from 1445, after Prince Henry the Navigator set up a feitoria, until 1633.
After the Portuguese, the Dutch, and then the French, took control of Arguin until abandoning it in 1685.
Nouakchott is the capital and the largest city of Mauritania. It is one of the largest cities in the Sahara.
Chinguetti was a center of Islamic scholarship in West Africa.
Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz in his hometown, Akjoujt, on 15 March 2009
2011–12 Mauritanian protests
Topography of Mauritania
A proportional representation of Mauritania exports, 2019
A Moorish family in the Adrar Plateau.
Camel market in Nouakchott
Mauritanian blogger and political prisoner Mohamed Cheikh Ould Mkhaitir
Qur'an collection in a library in Chinguetti

It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.

Niger

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Landlocked country in West Africa.

Landlocked country in West Africa.

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger
Map of the Songhai Empire, overlaid over modern boundaries
The Grand Mosque of Agadez
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterised by good relations with the West and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
Ali Saibou, President 1987–93, helped oversee the transition from military to civilian rule
A Tuareg rebel fighter in northern Niger during the Second Tuareg Rebellion, 2008
A map of Niger
Niger map of Köppen climate classification
An elephant in the W National Park
Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris
Administrative divisions of Niger
A proportional representation of Niger exports, 2019
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub
Niamey at night
Dolé Market
Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos
Small mosque in Filingue
A primary classroom in Niger
Maradi Reference Hospital
Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder
A traditional home in Zinder
Participants in the Guérewol perform the Guérewol dance, 1997.

It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

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Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).

Arabs

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The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco
The Qur'an is one of the most influential examples of Arabic literature

The Banu Hilal spent almost a century in Egypt before moving to Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, and another century later some moved to Morocco, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt and with Libya.

The Great Synagogue of Oran was converted into a mosque in 1975.

Oran

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The Great Synagogue of Oran was converted into a mosque in 1975.
The Santa Cruz Fort, Oran. Santa Cruz is Spanish for "holy cross".
A two-part map showing the port of Oran in the 18th century, by German map publisher Matthäus Seutter
The Bey Othmane El Kebir Mosque (Minaret de la perle)
Oran from steps of City Hall, 1894
Oran's city hall, dating from the French period
Climate in Oran
Neighborhoods and districts of Oran, old map
Mosque of Hassan Basha
Fort Mers el-Kebir
Madagh Beach (West of Oran)
The Great Library (ex. Cathédrale Sacré-Cœur d'Oran)
400px
Railway station in Oran
"Disco Maghreb" in Oran, 2017
Place 1er novembre (ex.Place d'Armes)
Chapelle Santa Cruz

Oran (وَهران) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.

Collage of the French war in Algeria

Algerian War

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Collage of the French war in Algeria
Battle of Somah in 1836
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers in 1857
Algerian rebel fighters in the mountains
National Liberation Army soldiers
Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Mourad Didouche, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Algiers: Muslim quarters (green), European quarters (orange), terrorist attacks
Electrified barriers along the entire length of Algeria's eastern and western borders
Barricades in Algiers, January 1960. The banner reads, "Long live Massu" (Vive Massu).
FLN female bombers
Commandos de Chasse of the 4th Zouave regiment. Zouave regiments were mostly composed of European settlers.
Young Harki in uniform, summer 1961
Ex-voto in Notre-Dame de la Garde thanking for the safe return of a son from Algeria, August 1958
French North African Operations medal, 11 January 1958
Former FLN member Saadi Yacef starred and co-produced The Battle of Algiers (1966) by Italian filmmaker Gillo Pontecorvo, which was critically acclaimed for its sense of historical authenticity and cast who had lived through the real war.

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence, and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November, was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France.

The Roman province Africa Proconsularis (red) to which Ifriqiya corresponded and from which it derived its name

Ifriqiya

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The Roman province Africa Proconsularis (red) to which Ifriqiya corresponded and from which it derived its name
Qalaa of Banu Hammad
Zirids and Hammadids after Bedouin invasions
The "Kingdom of Africa" (Regno d'Africa) pinpointed in red

Ifriqiya (إفريقية Ifrīqya), also known as al-Maghrib al-Adna (المغرب الأدنى), was a medieval historical region comprising today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's western Libya).

Marinid Sultanate

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The Marinid Sultanate in 1360
The Marinid Tombs in Fes, Morocco
The Marinid Sultanate in 1360
Coin minted during the reign of Abu Inan Faris (1348–1358)
Remnants of the city of al-Mansoura constructed by the Marinids during their siege of Tlemcen.
The Bou Inania Madrasa in Meknes, Morocco
Sculpted decoration, including muqarnas, around the courtyard of the Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes
The enormous Marinid chandelier in the Great Mosque of Taza
The banner of Sultan Abu al-Hasan, dated to 1339–1340, now housed at the Cathedral of Toledo
Page from a manuscript of al-Muwatta' by Malik ibn Anas, copied in Salé in 1326
Minaret of the Marinid-era Ben Salah Mosque in Marrakesh
The ruins of the Mosque of Mansourah near Tlemcen
The main gate of Chellah, near Rabat, which became a Marinid necropolis

The Marinid Sultanate was a Berber Muslim empire from the mid-13th to the 15th century which controlled present-day Morocco and, intermittently, other parts of North Africa (Algeria and Tunisia) and of the southern Iberian Peninsula (Spain) around Gibraltar.

Almohad Caliphate

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North African Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century.

North African Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century.

The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Approximate locations of the main Masmuda tribes that adhered to the Almohads
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Phases of the expansion of the Almohad state
The Almohads transferred the capital of Al-Andalus to Seville.
Coin minted during the reign of Abu Yaqub Yusuf
Almohads after 1212
A copy of the Qur'an personally transcribed by Caliph al-Murtada, circa 1266
The "Las Navas de Tolosa banner", an Almohad banner captured by Ferdinand III in the 13th century
The Monzón Lion, a bronze fountain from Al-Andalus dating from the 12th-13th century
Fragment of Kufic inscription on cuerda seca tiles formerly around the minaret of the Kasbah Mosque
The Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh, founded by Abd al-Mu'min in 1147
The ceremonial main gate of the Kasbah of the Udayas (in Rabat), added to the fortress by Ya'qub al-Mansur in the late 1190s
Martyrdom of Saint Daniel Fasanella and companion martyrs, Terni, 18th century
Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Tinmal
La Giralda, the former minaret of the Great Mosque of Seville, built during the Almohad period
The south portico of the Patio del Yeso of the Alcázar of Seville, built during the Almohad period
Reservoir of the al-Buḥayra gardens in Seville, with remains of palace structure behind it (partly occupied by later building)
Hassan Tower in Rabat: an incomplete minaret intended for an enormous mosque begun by Ya'qub al-Mansur in the 1190s
Bab Ruwah ('Gate of the Winds') in Rabat
The minaret of the Kasbah Mosque (or Al-Mansuriyya Mosque) in the Kasbah of Marrakesh
Bab Agnaou, the original public entrance to the Kasbah of Marrakesh
The Almohad minaret in Safi
The Torre del Oro in Seville
Calahorra Tower in Cordoba

At the time, Morocco, western Algeria and Spain (al-Andalus), were under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty.