A report on Algeria

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Country in North Africa.

- Algeria

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Western Sahara

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Disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa.

Disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa.

Intermittent lake Dait Um Saad
Western Sahara 1876
Spanish and French protectorates in Morocco and Spanish Sahara, 1912
System of the Moroccan Walls in Western Sahara set up in the 1980s
Commemoration of the 30th independence day from Spain in the Liberated Territories (2005)
A demonstration in Madrid for the independence of Western Sahara
A MINURSO car (left), and a post of the Polisario Front (right) in 2017 in southern Western Sahara
A Moroccan police checkpoint in the suburbs of Laayoune
A sangar (fortification) from the Western Sahara conflict. The fortification is built of rocks on top of a mesa overlooking the Grart Chwchia, Al Gada, Western Sahara. The Sangar is facing north and was probably built by the Sahrawis in the 1980s.
Sahrawi human rights defender Ali Salem Tamek in Ait Meloul Prison, Morocco
Sahrawi national police
Remains of the former Spanish barracks in Tifariti after the Moroccan air strikes in 1991
Natural products in a pharmacy
Morocco built several empty towns in Western Sahara, ready for refugees returning from Tindouf.
Sahrawi people
Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army
Two women outside a hospital emergencies at a Sahrawi refugee camps
Western Sahara in Africa
Topography of Western Sahara

Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two-thirds of the territory (including most of the Atlantic coastline—the only part of the coast outside the Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is the extreme south, including the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula) has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, and the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria.


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Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najdi tribe of Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya and parts of Southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.

Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najdi tribe of Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya and parts of Southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.

An Aghlabid cistern in Kairouan
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, rebuilt by Ziyadat Allah I in 836
Gold dinar of Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (184–196 AH), anonymous (but dynastic motto 'Ghalab' on the reverse), no mint name (probably Kairouan, Ifriqiya). Struck in 192 AH (807/808 AD). Preserved at the.

Ibrahim was to control an area that encompassed eastern Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania.


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Map of Numidia at its greatest extent
The Numidian mauseoleum of El-Khroub photographed in 2000
Map of Numidia at around 220 BC
Northern Africa under Roman rule
The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
Mausoleum of Thugga

Numidia (Berber: Inumiden; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially comprising the territory that now makes up modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco.

National Liberation Front (Algeria)

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Houari Boumediène, the leader of the National Liberation Army and future President of Algeria, during the war
National Liberation Army soldiers next to the Algerian flag

The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.

Idrisid dynasty

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Idrisid state, around 820 CE, showing its maximal extent.
Idrisid dirham, minted at al-'Aliyah (Fes), Morocco, 840 CE. The coin features the name of Ali: a son-in-law of Muhammad, the fourth Caliph, and an ancestor of the Idrisids.

The Idrisid dynasty or Idrisids (الأدارسة al-Adārisah) were an Arab Muslim dynasty from 788 to 974, ruling most of present-day Morocco and parts of present-day western Algeria.

Hafsid dynasty

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Realm of the Hafsid dynasty in 1400 (orange)
Coin of the Hafsids with ornamental Kufic, Bougie, Algeria, 1249–1276.
The minaret of the Kasbah Mosque of Tunis, built at the beginning of the Hafsid period in the early 1230s
Early red flag with white or yellow crescent of the 14th century, reported by Marino Sanudo (ca. 1321), Angelino Dulcerta (1339) and the Catalan Atlas (1385)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hubert-herald.nl/Tunisie.htm|title=TunisiaArms}}</ref>
White with blue crescent according to Jacobo Russo, 1550 (last period of the kingdom)

The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.

Hammadid territory circa 1050 (in green), and extended territories (dotted line) controlled in certain periods

Hammadid dynasty

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Hammadid territory circa 1050 (in green), and extended territories (dotted line) controlled in certain periods
Hammadid Minaret

The Hammadid dynasty (الحمّاديون) was a branch of the Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152.

Zayyanid dynasty

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The Zayyanid dynasty (زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, mainly in Algeria centered on the town of Tlemcen in northwest Algeria.


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Bona, Algeria, 1899
Ancient city of Hippo Regius, today Annaba
Annaba Sheraton Tower
Eddoug National Park

Annaba (عنّابة, lit "Place of the Jujubes"; ), formerly known as Bon, Bona and Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.

Fez, Morocco

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City in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region.

City in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region.

View of Fes el-Bali and the minaret of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II, which commemorates Idris II, one of the founders of Fez
Remains of the city walls on the north side of Fes el-Bali, which were rebuilt during the Almohad period (12th-13th century)
The Bou Inania Madrasa, the most important madrasa built by the Marinids in Fes (14th century)
Jews of Fez in the 1900s. The Mellah was the traditional Jewish quarter of the city since the 15th century.
Borj Nord, a Saadian fortress built in the 16th century overlooking Fez from the north
Patio of Moulay Rashid (17th century) inside the Royal Palace of Fez (photo from 1922)
The New Mechouar, created by Moulay Hassan I in the late 19th century at the northern entrance to Fes Jdid and the Royal Palace; on the left is the entrance to the Dar al-Makina, dating from the same time
The abdication of Abd al-Hafid, Sultan of Morocco in 1912
A street in the modern Ville Nouvelle ("New City") of Fez
The walled district of Fes el-Bali.
Local boys from Fez
Produce peddler in the Old Medina of Fes, Morocco.
Interior of the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II in Fes el-Bali
Interior of the Al Fassiyin Synagogue in the Mellah
Al-Attarine Madrasa built in 1323–1325 in Fes el-Bali
Interior of the mausoleum of Ahmad al-Tijani (d. 1815) in the Zawiya of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani in Fes el-Bali
City walls of Fez (northern section).
Leather tanning in Chouara Tannery
Gates of the Alaouite Royal Palace (Dar al-Makhzen)
Rooftop view of the domes of the Saffarin Hammam, located at Place Seffarine
Avenue Hassan II in the Ville Nouvelle (New City)
A copy of Muhammad al-Jazuli's Sufi text Dala'il al-Khayrat, a book of prayers first written in Fes in the 15th century.
Table of calculations from a copy of the Sefer Abudraham printed in Fez in 1516, the first book printed in Africa
A painting of the 17th century expulsion of the Moriscos from Valencia.
The Sufi calligrapher and scholar Muhammad Bin Al-Qāsim al-Qundūsi (d. 1861) developed his unique calligraphic style in Fes.
Performance at the World Sacred Music Festival in 2012 (Bab Dekkakin in the background)
University of al-Qarawiyyin
Gare de Fes, train station in the modern urban area of Fez

Around the same time, the Ottoman Empire came close to Fez after its conquest of Algeria.